Arguably my favourite underground demo of all time. Those guys used to put out the meanest BM. And they were huge fucking cunts. Chambre Froide - Rouge Chapelles. Just came out, very inspired raw BM. I remember when those guys were Ravensdom or something like that, back then it was really bad. Still didn't reach maturity, but started to show signs of what was to come.
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You can find it at : blackmetal on irc. Alternatively, you can find broader metal chat at metal on irc. Welcome to Reddit, the front page of the internet. Become a Redditor and join one of thousands of communities. BlackMetal submitted 2 years ago by smoughthefat. Want to add to the discussion? Post a comment! Create an account. Im definitely gonna spend some time browsing through his work.
There are processes such as soaking, germination, and extrusion, which alone or combined can decrease PA. However, nutritional composition and functionality of flours can change. Rice storage protein is gaining popularity worldwide because it is hypoallergenic and has superior amino acid composition . Jan Meth Mol Biol. Rice grain quality encompasses complex interrelated traits that cover biochemical composition, cooking, eating, nutritional, and sensory properties.
Because rice endosperm is composed mainly of starch, rice grain quality is traditionally defined by characterizing starch structure and composition, which is then subsequently correlated with functional properties of the grain.
The current proxy tests routinely used to describe rice grain quality preferences are rather limited to the estimation of apparent amylose content, gelatinization temperature, and gel consistency. Additional tests that characterize starch property, viscoelasticity, grain texture, and aroma are also employed in more advanced laboratories.
However, these tests are not routinely applied in breeding programs to distinguish cooking quality classes to reflect evolving consumer preference and market demand. As consumer preferences in Asia and all over the world are diverse due to varied demographics and culture, defining uniform attributes to capture regional grain quality preferences becomes more challenging.
Hence, novel and innovative proxy tests are needed to characterize rice grain quality to meet the demand for consumer preferences of commercially-released cultivars. In this chapter, the current methods employed in rice grain quality monitoring are succinctly reviewed.
Future prospects for improvement are identified, introducing cutting edge technologies that can facilitate high-throughput screening of rice diversity panels and breeding lines. Aside from addressing the requirements for quality improvement in the traditional inbred rice breeding programs, we also tackled the need to enhance grain quality in the hybrid rice sector. According to Schramm et al. Structural, functional and nutritional properties of rice are significantly influenced by its protein component Shih, Among the rice protein ingredients, RPC 3 had the highest protein content Composition and protein profile analysis of rice protein ingredients.
Since the dominant rice protein fraction i. In parallel, enriched protein fractions were extracted from defatted rice flour based on their solubility and characterised by SDS-PAGE to facilitate the identification of protein bands in the rice protein ingredients.
The results of this study underpin the understanding, prediction and control of physicochemical functionality of rice protein ingredients. The arabinoxylans content was analysed as described in a previous study Wang et al.
Dietary fibre enrichment from defatted rice bran by dry fractionation. Full-text available. Defatted rice bran is excellent source of dietary fibre.
The mostly used lab-scale method to extract dietary fibre is not very efficient; dry fractionation is a more energy efficient alternative at larger scale. Three separation routes were studied: two-step electrostatic separation, sieving and a combination of electrostatic separation and sieving. The enriched fraction obtained by two-step electrostatic separation contained more small particles and possibly different DF composition compared to the other two, which resulted in different functional properties.
Compared to dietary fibre extracted by enzymatic-gravimetric method, enriched fractions by dry fractionation have a similar water retention capacity and oil bind capacity. This suggests that fibre-enriched fractions by dry fractionation can be applied in foods and provide similar technological and physiological properties as wet-extracted dietary fibre does. It can also lead to deterioration in appearance and milling quality because of increased chalkiness Sreenivasulu et al.
Therefore, alteration of protein composition has to be subjected to structural, textural, rheological, safety, and sensory evaluation of rice to ensure consumer health and acceptance Shih, Feb A global rise of diet-related noncommunicable diseases calls for a focus on diet-based nutritional intervention across the entire socioeconomic consumer spectrum.
We review recent reports in the area of healthier rice aimed at developing rice grains with improved dietary fiber compositions increased amounts of nonstarch polysaccharides and resistant starch , and less digestible starch higher amylose and phospholipid complex in the endosperm resulting in reduced glycemic impact upon grain consumption.
We furthermore elaborate on the interconnections of elevated amounts of protein and a balanced composition of essential amino acids. The importance of a nutritious aleurone layer and its role in lipid storage and micronutrient composition is discussed briefly in the context of brown rice benefits. We identify gene targets for precision breeding that will facilitate the production of rice grains and rice-based products to mitigate the impact of nutrition-related preventable diseases.
Short-grain rice flour had a higher starch content than the longgrain variety, and the intermediate fractions were those that presented the highest values. Influence of flour particle size on quality of gluten-free rice bread. A genomics and multi-platform metabolomics approach to identify new traits of rice quality in traditional and improved varieties. Oct Metabolomics.
Using a novel approach combining four complementary metabolomic and mineral platforms with genome-wide genotyping at single nucleotide polymorphism SNP loci, we have investigated the extent of biochemical and genetic diversity in three commercially-relevant waxy rice cultivars important to food production in the Lao People's Democratic Republic PDR.
Following cultivation with different nitrogen fertiliser regimes, multiple metabolomic data sets, including minerals, were produced and analysed using multivariate statistical methods to reveal the degree of similarity between the genotypes and to identify discriminatory compounds supported by multiple technology platforms.
Results revealed little effect of nitrogen supply on metabolites related to quality, despite known yield differences. All platforms revealed unique metabolic signatures for each variety and many discriminatory compounds could be identified as being relevant to consumers in terms of nutritional value and taste or flavour.
For each platform, metabolomic diversity was highly associated with genetic distance between the varieties. This study demonstrates that multiple metabolomic platforms have potential as phenotyping tools to assist breeders in their quest to combine key yield and quality characteristics. This better enables rice improvement programs to meet different consumer and farmer needs, and to address food security in rice-consuming countries.
Lack of 26 kDa globulin accompanies increased free amino acid content in rice Oryza sativa L. Seed nitrogen content, protein composition and free amino acid content were determined in rice mutant lines with altered storage protein composition and their parental cultivars.
The Lgc1 gene, which causes low glutelin content and high content of 13kDa prolamin and 26kDa globulin, did not affect grain weight, nitrogen content, or free amino acid content. The glb1 gene, which lacks the 26kDa globulin, did not affect grain weight or nitrogen content, but in mutant lines with glb1 gene the content of the major free amino acids was significantly 1.
These results suggest that absence of 26kDa globulin is accompanied by an accumulation of a high level of free amino acids in rice grains. Phosphorus accumulation in grains of japonica rice as affected by nitrogen fertilizer. Dec Plant Soil. Background and aims This study aims to investigate the effect of nitrogen N on grain phosphorus P accumulation in japonica rice. Methods Six cultivars with contrasting agronomic traits were grown for 3 years from to of field experiments under seven N treatments and 1 year in of pot experiments with five N treatments to study the effect of N on grain phosphorus accumulation and to explore its physiological foundation.
Results Grain total P and phytic acid concentration showed a clearly decreasing trend as N rate increased for both field and pot experiments. Pot experiment revealed that application of N increase plant biomass, but tended to lower plant P uptake, especially for the split topdressing treatments.
Conclusions The combination of decreased plant P uptake and dilution effect of increased grain yield by N is proposed as underlying mechanism of the decreased grain P concentration by high N. Process conditions affect starch structure and its interactions with proteins in rice pasta. Alberto Barbiroli Francesco Bonomi. Impact of parboiling conditions on Maillard precursors and indicators in long-grain rice cultivars. Lieve Lamberts.
The effect of steaming conditions mild, intermediate and severe during parboiling of five different long-grain rice cultivars brown rice cultivars Puntal, Cocodrie, XL8 and Jacinto, and a red rice on rice colour, and Maillard precursors and indicators was investigated.
Rice colour increased with severity of parboiling conditions. Redness increased more than yellowness when parboiling brown rice. Parboiling turned red rice black. It changed the levels of glucose, fructose, sucrose, and maltose. Losses of the non-reducing sugar, sucrose were caused by both leaching into the soaking water and enzymic conversion, rather than by thermal degradation during steaming. Concentrations of the reducing sugars, glucose and fructose, in intermediately parboiled rice were higher than those of mildly parboiled rice.
After severe parboiling, glucose levels were lower than those of intermediately parboiled rice, while fructose levels were higher. These changes were ascribed to the sum of losses in the Maillard reaction MR , formations as a result of starch degradation and isomerisation of glucose into fructose.
Low values of the MR indicators furosine and free 5-hydroxymethylfuraldehyde HMF in processed brown and red rices were related to mild parboiling, whereas high furosine and low free HMF levels were indicative of rices being subjected to intermediate processing conditions. High furosine and high free HMF contents corresponded to severe hydrothermal treatments.
All rights reserved. Interfacial and emulsifying behaviour of rice protein concentrate. Interfacial and emulsifying properties of rice protein concentrate RPC have been studied in order to evaluate its potential application to stabilize O—W emulsions.
The interfacial behaviour of adsorbed proteins films constituted with RPC has been studied at the air—water and oil—water interfaces at two pH values 2 and 8. The type and the amount of soluble proteins have been determined in aqueous dispersions and results put forward the presence of most frequent rice protein profile and a significant degree of protein denaturation with a very low solubility.
Air—water and oil—water interfacial properties have been determined as a function of time, concentration and pH: air—water by surface pressure under compression—expansion cycles and oil—water by interfacial tension. Interfacial rheology has been studied under dilatational deformations, either at the initial step of film formation or once the interfacial tension was at equilibrium the film was completely formed.
Both interfacial and bulk emulsion properties reveal that RPC showed an enhanced potential as emulsifier at low pH. Globally; results indicate clearly important differences in the structural characteristics of rice protein films between pH 2 and 8 that impact on emulsifying properties. In Myoung Park. The composition and starch molecular structure of eight rice varieties were studied. Waxy and non-waxy long-, medium-, and short-grain rice varieties from California and Texas were used.
The weight-average molar masses Mw of the starches varied from 0. As would be expected, a higher Mw of rice starch correlated to lower amylose content. The range of Mw of amylopectin was 0. Amylose Mw ranged from 2. After debranching the amylopectin with isoamylase, the weight-average degree of polymerization DPw for the long-chain fraction correlated positively with a higher amylose content.
Oct Elaine T. Understanding the influences of amylose and protein contents on rice sensory properties is key to maintaining quality and providing consumers with rice with desired flavor and textural attributes. This research focused on delineating the effects of nitrogen nutrition on cooked rice texture and flavor. The sensory properties of cultivars grown in adjoining fields with differing rates of nitrogen fertilizer to yield grains with a large spread in protein contents were measured by a panel trained in descriptive analysis.
Second, rice sensory properties were modeled using apparent amylose and protein data. Fertilizer level affected protein and apparent amylose contents and, in turn, cooked rice texture.
Models revealed a negative correlation of protein content with initial starchy coating, slickness, and stickiness between grains - - three attributes that are perceived when cooked rice is first introduced into the mouth.
Models for roughness, hardness, and moisture absorption - - attributes representing three phases of evaluation in the mouth - - showed a positive correlation with protein content. The models provide insight into the magnitude of change in protein content that is likely required to observe textural changes in cooked rice. Mar Rice prolamin, constituting type-I protein body PB-I , is indigestible and causes deterioration of rice protein nutritional quality.
In this study, the in vivo digestibility of rice protein isolates was investigated by tracing their intraluminal transit in the gastrointestinal GI tract of rats by western blotting and by observing the structures excreted in the feces by electron microscopy.
The protein patterns in the isolates were similar, but their digestion in the GI-tract showed striking differences. These results indicate that the in vivo digestibility of prolamin can be improved by alkali extraction through structural changes to it. Retrogradation in rice is a trait that describes the hardening of cooked rice after storage or cooling, and it has significant implications for many consumers of rice, since many people cook rice in the morning and consume it several hours later or the next day.
Tools to select against retrogradation in breeding programs are yet to be described. Here, we aim to determine the effect on retrogradation of storage time and temperature and the role of starch, protein, and lipids using gels made from Koshihikari grown in either Australia or Japan.
Immediately after cooking, cooling from 60 to 40 degrees C had a minimal effect on firmness, but cooling to 20 degrees C led to significantly firmer gels. Storing the gels at low temperatures did not have an additional effect on the firmness as compared with storing the gels at 20, 40, or 60 degrees C.
The removal of proteins led to significantly softer gels at all storage treatments but did not affect the change in firmness on cooling. The removal of lipids increased the rate of retrogradation and the firmness of gels significantly for all treatments. Koshihikari grown in Japan retrograded much less than Koshihikari grown in Australia.
The amount of amylose that could be washed from gels made from Australian flour was much greater than for gels made from Japanese flour. After storage, only low molecular weight amylose chains were released from the gel and only after rewarming them to 60 degrees C. Once the long chains were released from amylose-lipid complexes, the Japanese rice retrograded.
Thus, the environmental factor affecting retrogradation in this variety is type or amount of lipids synthesized, and the degree of retrogradation was determined by the availability of long chains of amylose. Distribution of proteins and amino acids in milled and brown rice as affected by nitrogen fertilization and genotype.
A field experiment involving six japonica rice cultivars with contrasting agronomic traits and seven nitrogen N fertilizer treatments was performed to determine the effects of N and genotype on distribution of four kinds of grain proteins and amino acids in milled and brown rice.
For brown and milled rice, albumin and globulin were controlled more by genotype than N treatments, whereas prolamin and glutelin were largely determined by N. In comparison with large panicle cultivars, small panicle cultivars such as Wuyujing3 had the lower ratio and exhibited more stability under contrasting N treatments. N had significant influence on amino acid composition of brown and milled rice, with contents of the 17 amino acids measured increasing with elevated N rate.
However, cysteine and methionine in brown rice and lysine and methionine in milled rice were not significantly affected by N. Cereal Grains for the Food and Beverage Industries. Apr Cereals are a staple of the human diet and have a significant effect on health. As a result, they are of major significance to the food industry. Cereal grains for the food and beverage industries provides a comprehensive overview of all of the important cereal and pseudo-cereal species, from their composition to their use in food products.
The book reviews the major cereal species, starting with wheat and triticale before covering rye, barley and oats. It goes on to discuss other major species such as rice, maize, sorghum and millet, as well as pseudo-cereals such as buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth. Each chapter reviews grain structure, chemical composition including carbohydrate and protein content , processing and applications in food and beverage products.
Cereal grains for the food and beverage industries is an essential reference for academic researchers interested in the area of cereal grains and products. It is also an invaluable reference for professionals in the food and beverage industry working with cereal products, including ingredient manufacturers, food technologists, nutritionists, as well as policy-makers and health care professionals.
John R. Mainstream lager beer brewing using the tropical cereals sorghum, maize and rice, either as malt or as raw grain plus commercial enzymes, is becoming widespread. This review examines the differences in composition between these tropical cereals and barley and their impact on brewing processes and beer quality.
Unlike barley, the major endosperm cell wall components in sorghum and maize are arabinoxylans, which persist during malting. The rice cell walls also seem to contain pectic substances. Notably, certain sorghum varieties, the tannin-type sorghums, contain considerable levels of condensed tannins proanthocyanidins , which can substantially inhibit amylases, and probably also other brewing enzymes. Concerning beer flavour, it is probable that condensed tannins, where present in sorghum, could contribute to bitterness and astringency.
The compound 2-acetylpyrroline, responsible for the popcorn aroma of maize and also the major aroma compound in rice, presumably affects beer flavour. However, much more research is needed into tropical cereals and beer flavour. Other future directions should include improving hydrolysis of prolamins into free amino nitrogen, possibly using prolyl carboxypeptidases and investigating tropical cereal lines with useful novel traits such as high amylopectin, high protein digestibility and low phytate.
Rolfe J. Bryant Aaron K. Jackson Kathleen Yeater Robert Fjellstrom. Protein is the second most abundant constituent in the rice grain next to starch. Association analysis for protein concentration in brown rice was performed using a "mini-core" collection, which represents the germplasm diversity found in the USDA rice world collection. Protein concentration was determined in replicated trials conducted in two southern U. Protein concentration ranged from 5.
Protein variation owing to accession and accession x location interaction were highly significant. Ample variation was seen within each subpopulation by ancestry, as well as within the 14 geographic regions where the accessions originated.
Accessions from Eastern Europe had the highest level of protein. Ten markers on eight chromosomes were significantly associated with protein concentration.
Five of these markers occurred near known protein precursor genes or quantitative trait loci, and the other five markers were novel for the association with protein concentration in rice.
The germplasm and genetic markers identified in this study will assist breeders in developing cultivars tailored for applications requiring specific protein concentration in the rice grain.
The research results contribute to the potential discovery of novel rice storage protein pathways in the endosperm. Clearly, functional ingredients like chicory, inulin, and oligofructose are available to assist manufacturers in improving the nutritional profiles, as well as the flavors and textures, of their gluten-free food products.
While the future of the gluten-free market may have some inherent uncertainties, there is no doubt that ingredients derived from rice, as primary resources, offer a myriad of opportunities to formulate good tasting, high-performance, and naturally gluten-free foods.
Our former researches indicated that freezing subjected water molecules to penetrate inward and form ice crystals inside the protein bodies. Upon milling under this condition, these ice crystals influenced RPI structures and markedly unfolded them, leading to their solvation in water. Structural characterization showed that freeze-milling barely exerted proteolytic effects on RPIs.
As an example at pH 7. Our results would help develop soluble RPIs with different industrial attributes using freeze-milling treatment. Rice Proteins. Jan Marissa Villafuerte Romero. Rice proteins are considered healthy for human consumption because of important nutritional and health properties, particularly their unique hypoallergenicity.
They can serve as excellent ingredients for value-added food products. Proteins are present in rice hull, bran, and the endosperm, but bran has the highest content. The best sources of rice proteins are the bran and broken rice because these by-products of rice processing are undervalued and with limited applications. Depending on solubility, rice proteins are classified into albumins water-soluble , globulins salt-soluble , prolamins alcohol-soluble and glutelins alkali-soluble.
Although other extraction methods have been tried for rice proteins, alkali and enzymatic methods remain the most popular. The functional properties of protein hydrolysates from rice bran and rice endosperm and their various food applications are described in this chapter.
The quality of breads made with non-wheat flours. A wide variety of non-wheat grains including rice, sorghum, maize, tef and buckwheat are used in the production of non-wheat breads. Such breads fall into two main categories: normal pan breads and traditional bread products, which consist mainly of flatbreads. The absence of gluten during the use of non-wheat grain flours to produce bread poses significant challenges, because such flours lack the viscoelastic properties essential for successful bread production.
The technology of non-wheat bread production includes the use of hydrocolloids, enzymes and sourdough fermentation, which have been shown to improve the quality of non-wheat bread. Factors such as grain quality, flour quality and the type of microbial cultures used during fermentation influence the quality of traditional non-wheat flatbread products.
Major characteristics affecting the sensory quality of rice marketed in Korea. Feb J Food Sci Biotechnol. Eun W. Oui Hoon Kim S. Partial least squares PLS regression of the CR b-value with various characteristics of the MR showed that CR b-value was increased with MR b-value effectively, followed by protein content, damaged kernels, chalky kernels, and colored kernels of MR while it was decreased with whiteness and moisture content for the MR.
Rice Quality: A guide to rice properties and analysis. Jun Rice is a unique and highly significant crop, thought to help feed nearly half the planet on a daily basis. An understanding of its properties and their significance is essential for the provision of high quality products. This is all the more true today as international trade in rice trade has been increasing rapidly in recent years. This important book reviews variability in rice characteristics and their effects on rice quality.
After an introduction on rice quality that also explores paradoxes associated with the crop, the book goes on to examine rice physical properties and milling quality. This leads to a discussion of the effects that the degree of milling has on rice quality. The ageing of rice and its cooking and eating quality are investigated in the following chapters before an analysis of the effect of parboiling on rice quality.
Later chapters consider the product-making and nutritional quality of rice and investigate speciality rices and rice breeding for desirable quality. The book concludes with an extensive chapter on rice quality analysis and an appendix containing selected rice quality test procedures. With its distinguished author Rice quality: a guide to rice properties and analysis proves an invaluable resource for professionals in the rice industry and researchers and post-graduate students interested in rice.
Protein content and composition of waxy rice grains. Kim B. Kim J. Lee Song Joong Yun. Rice is not only an important cereal as a major food worldwide but also valuable sources of nutritional and nutraceutical substances for human health. Protein is one of the major factors determining eating, processing and nutritional qualities of rice.
Therefore, we examined effect of cultivar on the content and composition of proteins in waxy rice grains. Crude protein content was higher in waxy cultivars than in the non-waxy cultivar. There was a considerable variation in crude protein contents among waxy cultivars, ranging from 8. There was also a significant varietal variation in content of the four protein fractions. The mean contents of albumin, globulin, prolamin, and glutelin fractions of waxy brown rice were 1.
Those of milled rice were 0. Albumin, globulin, prolamin, and glutelin fractions for brown and milled rice were composed of seven, five, one, and five major bands, respectively, and no cultivar- or tissue- specific variations were apparent in the fractional profiles detected on sodium dodecy sulfate-polyacrylamide gels.
Thus, the varietal differences of total and fractional proteins were mostly contributed by quantitative rather than qualitative variations. Amino acid composition of leaf, grain and bracts of japonica rice Oryza Sativa ssp. This study aims to elucidate the role of bracts of rice spikelets in terms of nitrogen N remobilization, focusing on amino acid AA.
A pot experiment with three treatments of N rate was performed, using the japonica rice cultivar Ningjing5 as material. Dynamic changes of AA, mainly the protein amino acids, in leaf, grain, and bracts were monitored, and the redistribution rate of protein-N from leaf and bracts and its contribution rate to grain protein-N were calculated accordingly.
Results showed that the amino acid composition of bracts were similar to that of leaf, but quite different from that of grain. In response to N, AAs in leaf and bracts were more sensitive to N fertilizer than those in grain. High protein-N redistribution rate of leaf and bracts was observed, being N fertilization significantly increased the redistribution rate of leaf protein-N.Reise | Oktober Oktober Hoch im Norden Schwedens, oberhalb des Polarkreises, machen sich Jahr für Jahr Abenteurer aus aller Welt zu einem besonderen Trekking-Trip auf: Kilometer zu Fuß durch die Wildnis Schwedisch Lapplands – von Nikkaluokta nach bluesrock.granilargardajindforcerunner.infoinfo: Bergwelten.