Sher Universe Lydia langsam. Serenade 22, No. Allegro, Ma Non Tanto b. Saga, Op. Allegro 9. Symphony III. Il Tempo L Symphony No. Allegro Molto Vivace argo. Allegro Mol to Vivace.
Tuonela III. AllaValse Marcia. Triste, Moderato Op. Alla Marcia. Karelia Suite, Op. Karelia III. Suite, Moderato Op. Poco Viva Symphony No.
Allegretto Moderato ce. Allegretto Symphony Moderato. Al Symphony No. Quasi ArchivounadeFantasia. A Symphony No. Andante ma Non Troppo Lento llegro. Cambodia Allegro vivace. Violino Of Mozart 1, Op. Violino 1, Op. Hernandez 23 in A Major, MenosK.
Tu Vientre. Mozart I. Andante Sonata facile, assai K. Heifetz Allegro. Andant e assai. Adagio z. Mozart Masterpieces VI. Agnus Dei. Rond o Allegro. Zimmermann, A. Tamestit, Ch. Poltera Chamber. Beethoven - Septet, Op. Beethoven - Piano Sonatas, Opp. Beethoven - Coriolan Overture.
Leonare Overture No. Sofronitsky - Beethoven Sonata. Beethoven - Fidelio - Nikolaus Harnoncourt Opera. Beethoven - Complete piano sonatas, vol. Sviatoslav Richter Archives - Vol. Beethoven - Fidelio Ferenc Fricsay Opera. Beethoven - Violin Sonatas No.
Beethoven Around the World: Vienna, Op. Beethoven - Diabelli Variations Op. Beethoven Liszt - Symphony No. Beethoven - Piano Concertos n. Beethoven Symphony No. Beethoven - Sinfonie No. Alice Sara Ott - Beethoven Sonata. Bach - Keyboard Concerto No.
Beethoven - Piano Concertos No. Beethoven Piano Concerto No. Romantic Ensembles - Beethoven Chamber. Beethoven - Bagatelles, Piano Sonatas Nos. Ludwig van Beethoven - Complete Concertos Concerto. Symphony No. Schnabel Plays Beethoven Vol. I Piano music. Beethoven - Missa Solemnis - Klemperer - Mass. Beethoven - Variations - Olga Pashchenko Piano music.
Beethoven - Cellosonaten Op. II Piano music. IV Piano music. Beethoven - Fidelio - Bohm Opera. Beethoven - Piano Trios, Vol. V Piano music. III Instrumental. Brendel - The Complete Philips Recordings. Beethoven - Bagatelles, Piano Concerto No. Beethoven - Symphonies - Karajan. Violin Masterworks - The world's favourite violin classics - Beethoven Concerto. Beethoven - Lieder and Bagatellen, Op.
Beethoven - Piano Sonatas, Op. Beethoven - Sonatas - Rubinstein Sonata. Beethoven - String Quartets Opp. Beethoven - Violin Sonatas, Vol. Resound Beethoven Vol. Beethoven - Piano Sonatas No. Sonaten Nrn. Richter, Sonata. Goldenweiser plays Beethoven Sonata. Resound Beethoven - Vol.
Beethoven: Sonatas - Pathetique, Apassionata. Choral Fantasy Piano music. Beethoven - Unbekannte Meisterwerke Orchestral. Beethoven - Fidelio - Knappertsbusch Opera. Beethoven - Sonata No. Beethoven - String Quartets, Op. Cuarteto Casals - Beethoven - Revelations, 1 Quartet. Cuarteto Casals - Beethoven - Revelations, 2 Quartet. Cuarteto Casals - Beethoven - Revelations, 3 Quartet. Beethoven [Tatiana Nikolayeva] - 32 Sonatas Sonata. Beethoven - Symphonie Nr. The complete piano sonatas Artur Schnabel Sonata.
Beethoven - String Quartet No. Arthur Schnabel - Maestro Espressivo Concerto. The Beethoven Mysteries Concerto. Beethoven - Sonatas Opp. Pollini Sonata. Beethoven - Missa Solemnis - Solti Mass. Henk Spruit Oratorios. Beethoven - String Quartets Op.
Beethoven - Missa Solemnis. Mozart - Coronation Mass - Karajan Sacred music. Llyr Williams - Beethoven Unbound Instrumental. Beethoven - Symphonies No. Gulda - Die grossen Klaviersonaten - Beethoven Sonata. Beethoven Collection CD of 16 Concerto. Summary Essays. IPA vowel chart, consonant chart and symbol chart ; Anatomy diagrams ; Fach chart ; Bel canto : a definition ; The history of singing : a timeline ; The Pulitzer Prize and Grawemeyer Award : vocal works ; The Tony Award for Best musical ; Essential operas ; Major song cycles, collections, and sets ; Listening to singers ; The singer's ten steps to wellness ; Medications and their effects on the voice.
Titles in the Dictionaries for the Modern Musician series offer both the novice and the advanced artist key information designed to convey the field of study and performance for a major instrument or instrument class, as well as the workings of musicians in areas from conducting to composing.
Each dictionary covers topics from instrument parts to technique, major works to key figures-a must-have for any musician's personal library!
A Dictionary for the Modern Singer is an indispensable guide for students of singing, voice pedagogues, and lovers of the art of singing. In addition to classical singing, genres, and styles, musical theatre and popular and global styles are addressed. With an emphasis on contemporary practice, this work includes terms and figures that influenced modern singing styles.
Topics include voice pedagogy, voice science, vocal health, styles, genres, performers, diction, and other relevant topics. The dictionary will help students to more fully understand the concepts articulated by their teachers.
Matthew Hoch's book fills a gap in the singer's library as the only one-volume general reference geared toward today's student of singing. An extensive bibliography is invaluable for students seeking to explore a particular subject in greater depth. Illustrations and charts further illuminate particular concepts, while appendixes address stage fright, tips on practicing, repertoire selection, audio technology, and contemporary commercial music styles.
A Dictionary for the Modern Singer will appeal to students of singing at all levels. For professionals, it will serve as a quick and handy reference guide, useful in the high school or college library and the home teaching studio alike; students and amateurs will find it accessible and full of fascinating information about the world of the singing.
V6 H63 In-library use. Il rend compte de structures, de pratiques et de typologies. D57 Unknown. Erbarme dich . Bruining Daar kwam een boer van Zwitserland Een meisje dat van Scheveningen Het kwezelken Des winters als het regent De boer had maar enen schoen Een vrijer aan de deur Ik zag Cecilia komen Die winter is vergangen Gekwetst ben ik van binnen Sneeuwwit vogeltje 't Haasken Hoe laat is 't - Suze Naanje, ik waige di - Ik zat op 't hooi Slaap, kindje slaap Er is een kindetje geboren op 't toppetje van 't huis Zie de boerin met haar rokje zwaaien Altijd Is Kortjakje Ziek - Een Kalemanden Rok Daar boven uit het vensterke Vier weverkens Mien dochter, wilt toe traauwen?
The Keel row. Summary Prince Igor. Exsultate jubilate, K. Echols Chanticleer. Sound: digital; optical; stereo. Philidor Makam "Muhayyer pesrev" Ottoman march of war, anonymous, instrumental. CD 2: Te Deum. Hall of fame : the world's greatest classical music . Summary The Planets, Op. Bach complete edition. Vocal music. Jauchzet, frohlocket!
Er ist auf Erden kommen arm - Recitative Bass. Und der Engel sprach zu ihnen. Wohlan, dein Name soll allein Bass - Chorale. So geht! Ach ja! Ich habe genug! Mein Gott! Was mein Gott will, das g'scheh' allzeit Chorale Cantata. Jesu, nun sei gepreiset, BWV Chorale.
Nicht so traurig, nicht so sehr, BWV Chorale. Ermuntre dich, mein schwacher Geist Chorale Cantata. Gott des Himmels und der Erden Chorale. In dich hab' ich gehoffet, Herr Chorale. In dulci jubilo, BWV Chorale. Nun freut euch, lieben Christen g'mein Chorale Cantata. Vom Himmel hoch, da komm ich her Chorale Cantata. Wir Christenleut' Chorale. Heilig, heilig, BWV Chorale. Vater unser im Himmelreich Chorale Cantata. Christ ist erstanden, BWV 66 Chorale. Christus, der uns selig macht Chorale.
Herzlich thut mich verlangen No. Herzliebster Jesu, was hast du verbrochen No. Meinen Jesum lass' ich nicht Chorale. Ach bleib bei uns, Herr Jesu Christ Chorale. Gib dich zufrieden und sei stille, BWV -- Cantata. Gott lebet noch, BWV Cantata. Herr, wie du willst, so schick's mit mir, BWV Cantata. Herzlich thut mich verlangen, BWV Cantata. Jesu, der du selbst so wohl, BWV Cantata. Jesu, meine Freude, BWV 8.
Sankt-Peterburg : "Kompozitor -- Sankt-Peterburg", D Available. The lyrics : since . Description Book — xiii, pages : illustrations some color ; 33 x 35 cm Summary A major publishing event--a beautiful, comprehensive collection of the lyrics of Bob Dylan with artwork from thirty-three albums, edited and with an introduction by Christopher Ricks.
What Shakespeare did in his time, Bob does in his time. Kooper's assessment, and Dylan is attended to accordingly in this authoritative edition of his lyrics.
In the words of Ricks: "For fifty years, all the world has delighted in Bob Dylan's books of words and more than words: provocative, mysterious, touching, baffling, not-to-be-pinned-down, intriguing, and a reminder that genius is free to do as it chooses. And, again and again, these are not the words that he sings on the initially released albums.
As set down, as sung, and as sung again. D94 S62 F In-library use. Music for Memorial Day. Ohne Worte : vocality and instrumentality in 19th-century music . Torbianelli, Edoardo, author. Leuven : Leuven University Press, Description Book — 1 online resource pages : music.
What can music tell us - without words? Can it depict scenes, narrate stories, elucidate beliefs? And can it be an instrument through which we access the inner lives not only of musicians from the past but of ourselves, today? In this book five scholars and performers probe these and related questions to illuminate both the experience and performance of nineteenth-century music.
Drawing on a rich range of sources, they reveal the musical thought and practice of canonical composers like Berlioz, Mendelssohn, and Schumann. Their work challenges us to reconsider our musical practices and the voices manifested in them, and it encourages the creation of an art that is both historical and transcendental. Three complementary treatises on accompanying with the organ and harpsichord.
November Written for a vocal quartet and four-hand piano duo and intended as chamber music for use at home, the Neue Liebesliederwalzer are an eclectic mix of love-poems from many lands, including Turkey, Poland, Latvia, and Sicily trans.
The humorous casting of solo parts includes: bass as enraptured paramour, alto as jilted lover, tenor as Lothario, and soprano, a woman repeatedly unlucky in love. Facsimile printed on fine laid paper with hand-stiched binding after the original , housed with commentary and audio CD in a handsome clamshell case.
Oblong, 38 x 30 cm, 21, pp. Beautiful full-color halftone of the autograph fair copy. Since its premiere in Budapest on Nov. The autograph, like the Symphony No. Oblong, 34 x 28 cm, 24 facs, 8 pp. This is the only surviving source for op. Afterword in Ger-Eng by Bernhard Stockmann. Fingering by Christoph Eschenbach.
Sammlungen der Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Wien]. Halftone of the autograph, with new authoritative edition. Mit einem Nachwort von Friedrich G. Tutzing, Oblong, 30 x 21 cm, 16,pp.
This opus composed in Bad Ischl in May and June of was the composer's last composition for solo piano. Although a fair copy of the work with Brahms' annotations survives in the Juilliard School Library, this facsimile reproduces the only known autograph of the E minor and C major Intermezzi. Wrappers with handsome linen paper with pasted title etikette. Faksimile des Autographs herausgegeben von Margot Wetzstein.
Hamburg, Oblong, 35 x 27 cm, 8 facs, 7 pp. Attractive 3-color collotype of the autograph. This is the earliest work of Brahms known to survive in manuscript op. Handsome binding with coverboards in decorative paper.
Oblong, 38 x 30 cm, xxii, 36 pp. Its melancholic mood has been recently connected with Brahms' sadness over the deteriorating health and eventual death of his godson, Felix Schumann—son of Clara and Robert—who intermittently strove to become a violinist. The autograph is teeming with corrections and alterations, most likely made shortly after the first performance of the piece in August given by Brahms and Joachim in a private setting.
Beautiful 2-color halftone of the autograph score. Faksimile des Autographs und Werkbericht von Alfons Ott. Sammlungen der Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna]. Oblong, 35 x 27 cm, 14, 32 pp. Outstanding halftone of the elegant autograph score.
The work premiered on This facsimile represents the publishing debut of the venerable music publisher Dr. Hans Schneider. Handsome bibliophile edition of copies bound in grey linen with ivory colored boards.
Oblong, 32 x 24 cm, xvii, 26 pp. Full-color facsimile of the autograph fair copy dating from September Brahms played the piece for the first time in Hamburg 4 Nov. The first public performance was subsequently given by Clara Schumann on 7 Dec. The imminent music biographer Donald Tovey counts it as among the half dozen greatest sets of variations ever written.
Hardbound in decorative paper with faux title etikette. Schriftenreihe zu Musik, 1. Oblong, 35 x 25 cm, xvii, 19 pp.
Line-cut of the autograph. Although it is not known for sure if the piano version op. Wrappers, with reproduction of a woodcut of Tutzing on the cover. Library of Congress, Washington, D.
Halftone reproduction together with a new authoritative edition. Herausgegeben von Otto Biba. Beautiful period border decorations. Musica Repartita, 82F. Oblong, 30 x 25 cm. Line-cut of the Offenbach, c. Ring binder. Facsimile Edition Edited by Jan ten Bokum. Dutch Music Facsimiles, 3.
Preface in Eng. With a Preface by by J. Williamsburg, Oblong, 31 x 23 cm, vi, 26 pp. Line-cut of the London edition. A graded collection of pieces including numbers by Nicracci, Lully, Corelli, Larini, Pescatore, and others, together with some rules on playing by Robert Bremner. Wrappers in marbled paper. Eingeleitet von Harald Heckmann. Dictionarium Musicum, 1. Hilversum, Halftone of the second edition, Paris, Cloth also available in wrappers.
Reprint G. With an Introduction by Albert Clement. Exempla Musica Zelandica, 3. Middelburg, Line-cut of the Alsbach editions, Amsterdam, c. Introduction by Rudolf Rasch. Dutch Music Facsimiles, 8. Line-cut of the Leeuwarden, c. Contains 3 keyboard suites, 3 solos with figured bass resp. Introduction in Eng. Kurze Vorstellung von Verbesserung des Orgelwerkes. Line-cut of the Strasbourg, edition. Bilingual text, in Latin and German.
Extremely informative treatise on organology with altogether extended descriptions provided in Italian and French. Bilingual indices. Accompanied by superb woodcuts of scenes of musicians with their instruments. Willy-Burkhard-Gesellschaft, Jahresgabe Bern, Halftone of the autograph score, composed in for the marriage of his brother-in-law Karl Ludwig Schmalz and Vreneli Gerber.
Special limited edition. Halftone of the autograph score composed in for the baptism of Christine Judermuhle. Special limited edition on laid paper. Raccolti da Alessandro Busi. Line-cut of the n. Works by Martini, Santelli, Giovagnoni, G. Colonna, Incerto and Gajani. Herausgegeben von Jutta Theurich. Deutsche Staatsbibliothek, Berlin]. Franzpeter Goebels , Sonderheft. Halftone of the autograph, together with new practical edition. Introduction in Ger by J. Exempla Musica Zelandica, I.
Line-cut of the Amsterdam, c. Edizione della partitura a cura di Liuwe Tamminga. Line-cut of the Venice, edition [Libro primo], with modern transcription. The 1st of the 4 ricerars included in this collection is in fact an intabulation by the composer himself of a work that had already appeared in Il secondo Libro de recercari da cantare et sonare d'organo et altri stromenti a quatro voci A. Gardane, , in which the 4 voices making up the polyphonic texture were printed in partbook format.
Intoduction in It-Eng. Wrappers in handsome portfolio. Edited by Michael Belotti. Critical Facsimiles, 6. New York. Includes apparatus listing all editorial emendations. Opera prima, Opera secunda.
Edited by Eva Linfield. Critical Facsimiles, 3. Faksimile und Neuausgabe. Generalbassaussetzung von Dankwart von Zadow. Halftone of a contemporary ms copy, together with a new performing edition. Introduction by Jan ten Bokum. Dutch Music Facsimiles, 7. Line-cut of the Weinberger, edition.
Edited by Oliver Neighbour. It was painstakingly compiled by the Windsor-based scribe John Baldwin, who completed work on it on 11 September By Byrd was mid-way through his career as composer of church music and secular vocal and instrumental music.
The MS provides a snapshot of the keyboard music he had composed by that date and is an exceptionally important source for his music. It contains some of his best-known compositions for keyboard, including variations on the popular tunes 'Sellinger's Round' and 'All in a Garden Green'.
Her family's coat of arms adorns a leaf at the front of the MS. Commentary in Eng-Ger. Oblong, 32 x 22 cm, 34 pp. Line-cut of the Milan, edition. With 21 short pieces. Faksimile-Edition Theoretica, 4 Suttgart, Oblong, 22 x 17 cm, 48; 74 pp.
Line-cut of the Augsburg and editions. Ars cantandi—after a brief introduction on fundamentals and solmisation—includes an appendix of keyboard pieces preamboli, intermezzi, versetti, toccate, tastate, variazioni, fughe. Hardbound in decorative paper. Venezia Archivum Musicum: Strumentalismo Italiano, Line-cut of the Venice, partbooks canto I, canto II, basso , as well as the full score.
Wrappers in decorative paper, with slipcover. Libro secondo, Venezia Line-cut in the original partbook format. Consists of 17 sonatas for various instrumental combinations. Preface in It by Marcello Castellani. Wrappers and slipcover in decorative paper. Die phantastischen Erfindungen des Salomon de Caus. Line-cut of Frankfurt, edition.
Kunst der Mechanik also includes a madrigal by Alessandro Strigio, beautifully engraved in keyboard tablature by Pierre Filippe. Afterword by Stefan Gugenhan. Introduction and bibliography. Libro primo. A Facsimile of the [Venice, ] Edition.
Oblong, 24 x 17 cm, 73 pp. Line-cut of the Bernardus Vercellensis edition, Venice, , from the only complete copy known to exist since the first impression of This collection of organ tablatures was printed with type and metal-block in two impressions, and contains the earliest known use of chords and ties.
Gargano y L. Madrid, 23 x 32 cm, 2 vols: pp. Huge synthesis of musical-theoretical topics divided into 22 books. The last book deals with musical enigmas and puzzle canons. Line-cut of the Naples, edition. Preface in It by Giuseppe Vecchi.
Oblong, 31 x 22 cm, 70 pp. The first two books of harpsichord music to be engraved in France. Oblong, 31 x 22 cm, 23, 70 pp. Oblong, 27 x 21 cm, 70 pp.
Oblong, 31 x 22 cm, 20, 60 pp. Oblong, 27 x 21 cm, 62 pp. Musica Repartita, 27F. Oblong, 32 x 23 cm, 18, 38 pp. Line-cut of the Poggiali edition, Florence, c. The only keyboard sonatas by Cherubini. Warsaw, Oblong, 28 x 22 cm, 2 vols, 20, 67 pp.
Full-color halftone of the autograph fair copy. The work, in expansive sonata form in "stile brillante", dates from the early s and stands as testimony to the fact that after completing the concertos in F minor and E minor, that Chopin was thinking of composing a third. Bound in blue linen, with matching slipcase. National, Paris, fonds du Conservatoire Nationale de Musique, mus. Faksymilowane Wydanie Autografow F. Chopina, 3.
Krakow, Oblong, 35 x 28 cm, vii, 10 pp. Oblong, 35 x 28 cm, 10, iv pp. Oblong, 28 x 22 cm, 2 vols, 10, 56 pp. No title page. Chopina, 2. Oblong, 35 x 28 cm, vii, 14 pp. Oblong, 29 x 22 cm, 2 vols, 4. Full-color halftone of the incomplete autograph fair copy dropping off at bar , the only known autograph except for another in private hands that ends at bar Nathaniel de Rothschild par F. Rkp Oblong, 28 x 22 cm, 2 vols, 8, 59 pp. The manuscript has been meticulously notated, with a wealth of performance details, dynamic markings and expression marks.
Pelplin, Special OMI price. Oblong, 35 x 29 cm, 2 vols, , 76 pp. Bound in blue linen with matching portfolio. The first cadences are quite simple. The themes of Mendelssohn's variations, Op.
The distinction between strong and weak measures is not always easy. In certain cases one can hardly determine whether a certain measure is strong or weak.
In doubtful cases several successive measures together must be examined, as it is easier to make the proper distinctions in a larger complex. Although a composition begins normally with a weak measure, a strong measure sometimes occurs first. In such a melody the strong beats are shifted, and the eight-bar phrase usually gets a feminine ending, a close on an unaccented beat of the measure.
Such constructions starting with the strong measure can best be understood by calling the strong measure the "second" measure. Thus the phrase starts with the second measure. The preceding first measure has been omitted. The paradoxical beginning with the "second" measure will thus be comprehended in its true meaning. The measure which is lacking at the start is added at the end.
This explains the extension of the E flat at the end, the feminine ending, while at a the sharply marked masculine ending enters. The first note of example b is not the start but the close of a motif whose beginning has been omitted. The following rhythmical interpretation, though frequently found, is nevertheless wrong because the coherence of the motifs from measure to measure is thereby broken up. This apparent contradiction to the rule is explained by Schumann's incorrect notation.
This cor- rection makes it evident that the heavy "second" measure coincides with the third measure in Schumann's notation. If such a feminine end- ing is melodically extended, motifs of a peculiar type occur, for which Riemann has coined the term, Anschlussmotive, or appendage motifs.
These motifs have the power of turning a weak measure into a strong one or vice versa. Because the strong accented measures of a, the second, fourth, sixth, and eighth, are melodically extended, they lose their emphasis, and example b shows a new type of motif with the strong beat at the beginning. A good example of this type with its appendage motifs and strong beat at the beginning is found in the finale of Beethoven's C major sonata, Op.
The theme then would appear somewhat as shown at the top of page The simplest proceeding, of course, would be to complete the first phrase, before starting the next one, i. The eighth measure as such would be strong, 49 musical form but since it is also the first measure of the next section, it loses its strong accent and is changed into a weak measure. In the direct coordination of two phrases it often happens that a pause occurs between the end of the first phrase and the beginning of the next one.
This break is usually filled in by a prolonged upbeat a Generalaujtakt in Riemann's terminology , usually containing a more or less rapid scale- or passage-figure, as we see in the first movement of Haydn's quartet Op.
Particularly instructive examples of this type occur in the first move- ment of Beethoven's sonata Op. It is expressly in order to obtain this elegant curve that one employs these prolonged upbeat passages. The corresponding measures in the reprise section of this sonata extend this four-measure passage even further to six measures. Compare also the introduction of the second theme in D major in Chopin's B minor sonata, first movement. Insight into the nature of such passages teaches us that in actual per- formance they should not be played in strict time with sharp accents on the first beat, nor with differentiation of strong and weak measures, but rather rolled off as a prolonged upbeat in a single onward surge.
It would even be logical to write them without bar lines in order to make manifest to the eye at first glance their nature as merely filling out, transitional, ornamental features, like arabesques. Just as the light upbeat does not like to be weighed down by chords or harmonization with rare exceptions, as in old part songs of the sixteenth century and Bach chorales so, too, passages re- placing the upbeat require no harmonization, and are better written without any chord accompaniment.
The preceding final chord is prolonged by them and dies away within them. Our somewhat theo- retical introduction may now be followed by the practical application of these theoretical principles and by the study of entire pieces. First we will consider the simpler types of dance, march, and song form, later, the more complicated forms, such as the prelude, fugue, canon, passacaglia, the suite and sonata, in all their varieties.
Finally we will examine the most important of the vocal forms. The latter, while retaining the gen- eral outlines of the dance, add refinements of structure, of harmony, and of 52 the song forms musical treatment which would be disturbing and inappropriate in actual dancing, and by its excessive pretentiousness would divert attention from the dance itself. First of all, a piece of dance music must clearly mark the rhythm of the dance. Besides this, it should have a characteristic and pleas- ing melody.
Dances are written partly in duple, partly in triple time. The most popular ballroom dances of nineteenth-century music are the polka, galop, waltz, polonaise, mazurka, contradance, quadrille. It must not be confused with either the polonaise or the polacca.
Johann Strauss, Ziehrer, and others have written polkas strictly for dancing. The polka occurs frequently too in Swedish folk music. Like the march and mazurka, the polka has a short introduction preceding the dance proper, a trio in the middle, and a coda at the close, after the repetition of the polka. In both dances there is an introduction of a few measures. The dance proper is written in three-part song form, containing either 3x8 or 3x16 measures.
Extensions or con- tractions of the eight-measure phrase are rarely used here. The trio, 1 too, is built in two- or three-part song form, usually in a tonality different from the main section, preferably in the subdominant.
Dances in the minor keys 1 In the study of musical form, the trio means a middle section, a contrast to the principal section in its more reposeful, broader character. Because this middle part was originally written for three voices, in the old French ballet suites, it received the name trio; in later compositions, however, strict three-part writing is by no means a characteristic feature of the trio. The coda is an appendix which does not belong to the dance proper. Eight or sixteen measures gen- erally suffice for the coda.
Waltz literature first arose around , particularly in Vienna. Next follows the Eingang entry , a short phrase of a few, gen- erally four, measures marking the waltz rhythm sharply and introducing the waltz tempo before the dance proper begins. Generally five waltzes, though sometimes less, are written in sequence, contrasting with one another in melodic character. Each waltz is built on a regular pattern usually of 2 X 16 measures, with clearly defined cadences and rather simple modulation.
Occasionally, the waltz is written in three-part instead of two-part song form, with the third part repeated at the end. Often, in two-part waltzes, two entirely different sixteen-bar periods succeed one another without any thematic connection.
Several of the five waltzes are generally written in dif- ferent tonalities. The whole work is concluded by a finale, which links to- gether the various waltz melodies in the manner of a potpourri, occasionally elaborating one of them still further and winding up with a brilliant climax at the end. The artistic value of a waltz lies in its wealth of light, agreeable, varied, and graceful melody.
Generally only the accompanying dance rhythm is allotted to the bass and middle parts, whereas the composer's art is dis- played in the melody of the uppermost voice. Exceptionally, the roles are reversed, the melody is placed in the bass, and the upper voices indicate the dance rhythm.
The new "Paris" waltz is written in a somewhat shorter form: 2x16 measures : : transition to the trio : 2 X 16 measures : the waltz da capo, followed by the finale and coda. In the nineteenth century the waltz was transformed into concert music, just as earlier the old dances had been adapted to the concert suite. Thus, Chopin's famous waltzes and Brahms' "Liebeslieder" are meant as salon or concert pieces, not as dance music. Even symphonic music does not dis- dain a waltz occasionally, as is shown in Berlioz' "Symphonie Fantastique," in Tchaikovsky's Fourth and Fifth symphonies, in Liszt's "Mephisto" waltzes.
In such cases the composer, free from the restrictions imposed by the actual dance, can apply much more elaboration of harmony, modula- tion, and polyphony to his concert waltz. The characteristic feature of the 54 the song forms waltz rhythm accompaniment consists in the sounding of the bass note alone, on the first beat, followed by the full chord on the second and third beats: Chopin.
Fre- quently shifted accents constitute the rhythmical peculiarity of this dance. It gets its main accent on the third, sometimes the second beat, instead of on the first beat. These sharp accents make the mazurka energetic, force- ful, and fiery, entirely foreign to the soft charm of the waltz. The accents correspond to the violent motions of the dance, to the leaping, the stamping of feet, the clapping of hands. The Kujawiak is a peasant dance.
It is slower and quieter, more monotonous and melancholy than the mazurka. The mazurka, like many other dance types, often has a short introduction preceding the dance proper and a trio in another tonality as intermezzo, followed by the repetition of the mazurka plus a coda.
The typical mazurka rhythm is illustrated by Chopin's Op. Berlin, Its distinctive features are the rhythm of its accompaniment: and its typical conclusion: J7H7J1 The origin of the polonaise is generally traced back to a banquet given by Henry of Valois who later became Henry III of France, at the Polish court in Cracow in Recently, Spanish origin has been claimed for it.
Even much earlier in the songs of Heinrich Albert in the seventeenth century, pieces are found "in the Polish manner. Jahrhundert, I, 2, The polonaise entered the realm of art music through Chopin, whose example inspired Liszt and other musicians, such as Tchaikovsky, Mussorgsky, Moszkowski, Xaver Scharwenka, and others. In its construction the polonaise resembles the march; it uses a sort of trio or intermezzo, contrasting with the main theme, and it shows a pref- erence for a large three-part form.
Chopin's much more complicated polo- naises are not intended as dance music proper, but as concert pieces in polonaise style. Thus, for example, the E flat minor polonaise is in rondo form, 6 with two subsidiary sections. The outstanding example of this form is the great A flat polonaise, Op.
The characteristic features of the minuet are a certain amiable charm, a certain artful grace of the salon. The French suites of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries abound in charming minuets. The minuet is virtually the only one of all the old dances which has survived in modern music. As the second or third movement, it has become an indispensable feature of the sonatas, quartets, and symphonies of Haydn and Mozart. It is precisely here that the most remarkable masterpieces are to be found, since both Haydn and Mozart displayed the entire refinement of their art of rhythm most brilliantly in their minuets.
Nowhere, in fact, can one better learn what is meant by refined, distinctive, and ingenious rhythm. Beethoven took over the minuet, but frequently replaced it with the scherzo.
As the best known model of its type, the minuet from Mozart's Don Giovanni is sketched out here: jrr-f rvrfiTrW"! The first part, a, is the minuet proper, b is the trio; the last a is the repetition of the minuet, often with an added coda.
Each of the three parts has its own subdivisions in the style of the three- part song form. As an example of a minuet with all the refinements of the species, let us consider the minuet from Mozart's G minor symphony. First part: fourteen measures, a contraction of the sixteen-measure period, caused by the two three-bar phrases at the beginning. One measure is lacking at the end. At the reprise of the minuet, the masters often take considerable liberties with this form.
Thus, instead of mere repetition a more or less complicated variation may occur, in this particular case, a canonic imitation of the chief motif. The nine- measure phrase is an extension of the eight-bar phrase by one measure. At the beginning, a contraction 9 of two measures at a and an extension of four measures at the end, increases the sixteen-bar phrase to eighteen measures.
The last section has two measures more than expected, compensating for the two measures lacking in the first section. Their titles have reference to the character rather than the form of the music.
Music for wind in- struments, filled with the dreamy, soft sound of the horn, was popular in those sentimental "Werther" days, especially for nightly serenades or nocturnes. In the nineteenth century the nocturne became a species of piano music, brought to perfection mainly by John Field and Frederic Chopin. Franz Liszt introduced his edition of the Field nocturnes with a remarkable literary appreciation of Field's nocturnes as lyric little masterpieces. Chopin's nocturnes are generally written in three-part song form in slow tempo, with a more rapid middle section, a tempo scheme quite frequent in music: andante, allegro, andante.
Schumann was particularly fond of this complex song form. The reversed order — allegro, andante, allegro — is used by Chopin in his impromptus, as well as by Schubert in his impromptus. Schubert's "Mo- ments musicaux" have a similar construction although they are shorter.
The term impromptu derived from the Latin words in promptu, in readi- ness means almost the same thing as improvisation. The piece should com- monly sound like an improvisation. The minuet differs from the scherzo not in its form but rather in its char- acter.
The scherzo is always faster in tempo. The minuet has the aspect of a rather measured dance in deliberate pace, either graceful or grave, while the scherzo passes beyond the dance into a rapid running, often into a breathless rush.
Beethoven, particularly, expressed its presto style with most brilliant effect. He always preserved the humorous character of the form. Even in his less frequent scherzi in minor, which are sometimes charged with a strange, demoniacal, and restless motion, a humorous tone occasionally breaks through, as in the jolly, rollicking trio in the scherzo of the Fifth Symphony.
Hurried, sprightly rhythms, sudden sharp accents, shiftings of the accent by syncopation, clever use of staccato, great leaps in the melodic line, violent dynamic contrasts are the main characteristics of the Beethoven scherzo. Nearly all the later composers down to Brahms, Bruckner, and Mahler have retained in their scherzi the features of the Beethoven scherzo.
Mendelssohn introduced a new note into the scherzo. He is the master of the fantastic, the diaphanous, airy scherzo, nimble-footed and delicate, like a fairy's dance, a carnival of elves.
For Chopin, the scherzo was a piano piece of larger dimensions, in rapid tempo. His four Scherzi, among his best works, abandoned the Beethoven-like humor, but stressed the fan- tastic, the demoniacal, the savage and nocturnal traits to a degree hitherto unknown in piano music.
The rapid tempo of the scherzo permits a much larger extension of the form as compared with the minuet. This greater ex- tension need not actually mean an extension in time, however. Beethoven, in some of his larger works, extended the scherzo to nearly twice its usual length by expanding the basic form aba into a larger pattern a b a b a, thus bringing in the trio twice, and the main section of the scherzo three times.
Later composers occasionally go even a step further by employing two different trios instead of the repeated trio. Schumann, in particular, is fond of this form of scherzo. In his symphonies and chamber music many an example may be found.
The Schumann "Novelettes" for piano, and also the "NachtstUcke" are written in this free song form, closely related to the rondo. The structural formula for pieces of this type would be a b a c a, with two different intermediate sections, or a b a c a d a, with three inter- mezzi. Its purpose is to offer the player a cer- tain technical problem in its various aspects and in a musically coherent form.
Generally some type of song form underlies the etude. A single motif, just as in a variation or in a song accompaniment, is usually carried out through the entire etude. Since the study gains coherence by being lim- ited to a single motif, the etude can, on the other hand, permit itself a much greater freedom of harmony, modulation, and structure than would be feasible in a straightforward song.
But the great masters of piano composition have always striven to combine musical value with technical purpose in the etude. In this respect, the etudes of Cramer, Moscheles, and especially those of Chopin and Liszt are eminent models. The greatest master of the etude is Chopin, who knew how to set forth ingenious, novel, highly interesting technical problems in such a way that they became poetry in sound.
Three etudes by Cramer, Moscheles, and Chopin may be briefly examined here. Cramer, No. Bulow edition Presto. The technical motif is a scale figure for the left hand, with a briefly struck octave at the beginning of each measure.
The pianistic difficulty of this piece lies in this brief octave, from which the etude mainly derives its practical value for the suppleness of the left hand. In the right hand there is a light, chordal accompaniment interrupted by rests. The musical value of the etude lies in the even flow, the lovely contour of the bass figure, and in the counter melody to which the right hand chords contribute their share; it lies also in the climax of the second part, in the elegant descent towards the end, and in the balance and polish of the form.
The piece has seventy-two measures, so divided that each of the two parts is precisely equal in length, namely, thirty-six measures. In this three-part form, the first section, of forty-seven measures, is a development of the motif quoted.
The second, 64 the song forms the middle section, aims at contrast. Now the motif is played by the left hand, forte, while the right hand plays heavy, full chords. The climax is attained in the middle, fortissimo, the motif now being played by both hands.
Following this an abrupt change occurs, with the return to the original set- ting of the first section, again leggiero and piano, and then a surprising modulation from E flat back to A flat major. The middle section starts at measure 49 and ends at measure The third part, measures , returns to the version of the first part without being an exact repetition.
It has the character of an enlarged coda which replaces the reprise. Here is an interesting illustration of the above-mentioned free and ingenious treat- ment of the formal scheme.
The musical refinement of the piece is mani- fest in the climax of the middle section, in the sudden contrast the E flat section in the second part, in the interesting harmonic return to the A flat tonic and in the broadly extended coda.
Its form is two-part. The first section contains thirty-six, the second, thirty-four measures. The two parts run completely parallel to each other. In the first part the rela- tive major A flat and the dominant C predominate; in the second part the tonic key of F minor is central, in accordance with the general procedure of the song form. The musical values of the piece are manifest in the pas- sionate melody, rising over the surging bass, in the powerful climax at the end of each section, in the magnificent expression of the agitato character, in the abrupt change from passionate outcry to timid anxiety, from forte to piano.
Since a march is a piece of music suitable for marching, that is, for forward motion in regular steps, the rhythm of the march must be adapted to this purpose. It must be in 65 musical form duple time, corresponding to the regular alternation between the right and left foot.
Generally the form of the march is simple, developing from the eight- or sixteen-bar form. It is quite important to mark the accents strongly.Dola Mic_ Nuty_ & 4- Tay) ERROR: Slaraffenland - Dust!= bluesrock.granilargardajindforcerunner.infoinfo - Versus ERROR: Cab Calloway & His Orchestra - The Ghost Of A Chance!= Chu Berry - A Ghost Of A Chance ERROR: Ill - Theme for a German Princess!= The Book Of Lists - Troy ERROR: Moodymann - Various Mixed KDJ Rarities!= Eimmot - This Is Analog ERROR: Kélétigui Diabaté.