Recamier, whose religious beliefs were never uncompromising and who, as she tells us herself, only accepted beliefs in so far as they seemed to her admissible, 2 ascribed the firmness of her Catholic con- victions, in the midst of all her other changes, to the deep influence of the convent.
Benjamin Constant, who wrote some fragments which have been preserved about Juliette's youth, 3 has added a few details to those recollections of her own.
He shows us the young girl among her comrades. The beautiful hair which she could not let down now, without filling our hearts with tumult, fell harmlessly then over her white shoulders. He went to Lyons to see the Jardin dc Plantcs, which had been established in the former Convent gardens : he desired to look with his own eyes on the landscape on which those of Juliette had rested : he called up the memory of the young girl, shut up behind the convent grating, a grating that never opened on the church except when the Host was elevated during Mass.
All this went on in silence, for the hour at which they rose was one of those known in religious houses as the hour of c great silence. I, p, 2. IV, p. YOUTH AND MARRIAGE 5 The pupils seem to have spent a very pleasant life within their cloister walls ; they were few in number, and all of wealthy families ; they were prepared for their social life, their natural gifts were cultivated, care was taken of their beauty or of their voices.
She was happy and, thanks to her calm and loving nature, so clinging and steadfast that she looked out on life indolently, as in a dream, and without a touch of impatient desire. In her the Parisian germ had burst forth under the skies and within the walls of the ancient Gallic city.
The question we here set ourselves is 1 Ant. Rdcamier, p. Lenormant says, "The compass of her voice was very limited. Recamier's character. Juliette was born two and a half centuries later in the native city of that "Belle Cordiere" so extolled by the poets. In the sixteenth century, the house of Louise Labbe had been, after a fashion, the Abbaye-aux-Bois of the town of Lyons, but with an atmosphere that had more warmth and less tranquillity.
What was there in Mme. Recamier and in Louise Labbe, too, that was inherent in their race and peculiar to their place of origin? He notices her charm, " that of a sort of delicate decency and voluptuous chastity, her seductive reserve implying the un- spoken idea that beauty is a holy thing, 2 the strange facility with which she allows herself to be led away by apparent mysticism and piety.
Renan is less judicious when, speaking again of the Lyonese women, he alludes to their " mystic and passionate disposi- tion," their " somewhat materialistic piety, their taste for what is out of the common and for what is emotional. Recamier can no longer be recognized in it. Most of them refuse to recognize any likeness to themselves, except in a speech by Quinet, which Mme. Recamier herself may have read, for it was delivered on the 10th of April, , and also in that famous passage in which Michelet speaks of " Lyons, in the mighty opposition between her two mountains, the mystic mountain and the mountain which works : Fourvieres and the Croix-Rousse.
Yet some notions drawn from it may tend to the explanation of the character of Mme. It must be acknowledged that we run the risk of misunderstanding this celebrated woman if we isolate her too much from her native origin. We must never expect to find in her that unity of moral or intellectual development which renders certain southern types of character more simple.
We shall frequently find her melan- choly : this is a racial feature. We shall sometimes find fault with an appearance of coldness which disconcerts her friends, 1 See "Lyon en ," by Ed. Aynard printed at Lyons by Mougin- K 2 Aynard, as quoted above, p. Faguet's Etude sur Ballanclie. The testimony of A. Daudet, although drawn from a novel, is none the less worthy of remembrance.
We shall see her dreaming, in the very midst of action, or, again, acting but as though in a dream. After such uncertain sallies, which are never of long duration, she will invariably return of her own free will to reason, that smiling, resigned reason which was the mainstay of her whole life.
She was profoundly charitable, another feature which betrayed her origin. And, in conclusion, we must add that, like the city of her birth, she possessed a strong sentiment of personal freedom, a proud dignity, which kept her from giving herself a loose rein.
Re'camier might possibly have said of herself what has been written of the city of her birth, We must judge of this later on. At the time of which we write, the fair Juliette Bernard was finishing her education, working at her music, learning the harp, the piano, and taking singing-lessons.
Juliette saw one of the last of the grand dinners of Versailles, was noticed by the Queen, and even " measured,"" we are told, against Madame Royale. Bernard seems to have been almost a life of luxury ; their favourite guests were citizens of Lyons who had either settled in Paris or were passing through. Their special preference was for literary people. Thus Juliette, when still a child, knew her fellow townsman, Edouard Lemontey.
He was young at that time, and look- ing about for a career. He was a member of the Legislative Assembly, and a moderate constitutional in politics, and had not as yet made himself remarkable by his readiness to serve every regime.
Barere dc Vieuzac, a man of very different origin, was also a frequent guest at Mme. Bernard's house and, as has been truly remarked, 4 his protection explains the fact that Juliette's family traversed the- most difficult periods of the Revolution with comparative ease. Barere, who was a 1 Aynard, work quoted, p.
It was not till a later date that she took lessons from Boi'eldieu, who was about the same age as herself, 3 Souv, et Corr, I, pp. He was already advanced in life, and was devoting his whole attention to his lectures at the Lycee. Juliette was probably taken to hear the lessons of the man she was to see cast into prison as a suspect in La Harpe, whom we shall meet again, was one of Mme, Recamier's earliest adorers.
In a letter still in existence, he says, after accepting an invitation: "For all time, and in every place, my heart belongs to the charming Juliette. He was a banker whose magnificent style of living was famous all over Paris. He was born at Lyons in , and the baptismal register of the parish of Saint-Nizier contains the following entry 3 : "On March 10th, , 1 baptized Jacques-Rose, born on the previous day, the son of Sieur Francois Recamier, merchant, and of Demoiselle Emerode sic Delaroche, his wife.
The financier's father made a special impression on him, " This worthy man," he writes, " was very fond of me ; he was severe, like most fathers of his period, and my affection for him was mingled with respect and fear. He 1 Barere, "who was very fond of literature, and more especially of sen- timental literature," collaborated in the publication of the Letters of Mile, de Lespinasse in We are indebted to Dr.
Brillat-Savarin for the fragments we publish. Lenor- mant tells us, " was looked on as a model of its kind," and this we readily believe. Jacques-Rose Recamier's epistle is very courteous, but exceedingly firm. I have a horror of anything resembling disregard of the law ; nobody is more anxious than I to submit myself to the intentions of the Government, and even to second them, so far as my feeble powers permit.
But I flatter myself that your Excellency, recognizing the truth of my remarks, will condescend to treat them with the consideration I claim from your Excellency's kindness. One of them speaks of him as "an unprincipled jobber" who used his wife as an "adver- tisement," "The Revolution served him well," writes M. Recamier, Ur y H. There is another, No. Unlike Mme. Angot, nothing could be too rich, too elegant, or too expensive for her. I had never- theless already found my conqueror, though I was as yet un- aware of the power of her weapons, and never reckoned on my own defeat.
To ensure your receiving this confession without that feeling of prejudice with which the surrounding circum- stances might perhaps inspire you, I must begin by drawing you a portrait of the person, not as blind love might present her but such as a clear-sighted friendship and the most tender affection have enabled me to judge her, with all the calmness of reason and the discernment of a sensible man.
Unfor- tunately, she is too young, she is not more than sixteen. Others may possess greater beauty, but I have never seen any which answered better to my heart's desire. In her, candour, modesty, sweetness, are accompanied by all the charms of youth In spite of the disproportion between our ages, as I have always treated her with affectionate tenderness, she has always shown me a special regard, which has been developed I Sing a'ni punctuation ; the variations of the original present no feature of interest.
I have noted all these gradations ; they have strengthened my own feelings. I am not in love with her, but I feel for her a genuine and tender attachment which con- vinces me that this interesting creature will be a partner who will ensure the happiness of my whole life and, judging by my own desire to ensure her happiness, of which I can see she is absolutely convinced, I have no doubt that the benefit will be reciprocal.
Her education has been very carefully looked after, more in the way of solid knowledge than mere accom- plishments, though these have been by no means neglected. She could hardly have been born under a more lucky star. She possesses germs of virtue and principle such as are seldom seen so highly developed at so early an age ; she is tender-hearted, affectionate, charitable and kind, beloved in her home-circle and by all who know her. It was only after long and thorough study of its nature and sincerity that I made up my mind to reveal them, at a moment when her parents were the last persons to have expected this, for I had never con- ducted myself in their house in a way likely to rouse any suspicion of my views, of which no one had any idea, neither the young lady herself nor any of those about her.
There had even been two other suitors, about whom I had been con- sulted. It was after this that I made my own proposal, first of all to the mother, and afterwards to the father. Both of them, who know me well, appeared delighted. This took place on Saturday, and I have seen her again since.
Our tears supply what is lacking. Have you already guessed, dear friend, who might be the charming creature whose name I must end by telling you? It is Mile. Hearing this name, prejudice might perhaps weaken the interest with which my picture of her, physical and moral, may have inspired you. But believe me, my dear friend, I have enough good sense to have weighed everything carefully.
Whether I should take the young lady with her father and mother or without them, I do not think public opinion can reproach me, and it will soon be dumb and disarmed when my choice has been justified by a knowledge of and an acquaintance with her excellent qualities. It may be said that my feelings for the daughter arise out of those I have had for her mother ; but all those who frequent the house are well aware that what took me there was pure friendship a friendship which had grown out?
At present, having reached an age when all other pretensions are past, she only wishes to educate her child, and make her a virtuous and good woman.
The varying circumstances of her life have taught her, better than most women, the value, at every age, of one's own self-respect and of the respect of others.
The father, who holds a post which necessitates very hard work, devotes himself to it entirely, and has probably reaped the fruits of his labour, for he knows his business better than most men. I calculate his fortune to be a clear two or three hundred thousand francs put by; they have two houses at Lyons.
Their daughter is their only child ; either now or at a later date, she will inherit everything. You may well imagine that, up to the present, the question of interest has not come in on either side, but it will necessarily be con- sidered in the marriage contract, and on that point we shall soon come to an agreement. The matter at present to decide is when the marriage shall take place. For the young lady's sake, and for my own, it would be better for it to be sooner than late.
We see each other every day, and this state of half-bliss will not suffice for us. I shall have everything to arrange, though, before we can set up house- keeping : there will be every household requisite to buy, from the first plate to the first tablecloth, stores of every kind, and so many other things. We are both of us inclined to the most careful management, and to a well-ordered but strict economy. We shall have to set up housekeeping though, and that is no small matter just at present, when everything is so dear.
Our family is not like a great many others; we love each other for our own sakes, and it would be impossible and unjust to even imagine that my family would, out of any in- terested motive, receive the news of my decision coldly. If Heaven be pleased to continue to bless my labours their fruit will always be common to us all.
Above all things I desire to inspire my dear Juliette with the conviction that regard for my family is the first proof she can give me of her regard for me. All she has heard of the union existing amongst us has made her ready to conceive this feeling promptly, and I am certain she possesses claims on a reciprocal regard on your part as soon as I have introduced her to you. This will be one of my earliest desires when once we are united. You will perhaps think I am choosing a very critical moment for my marriage.
But it is just at this period of general dissolution that a man must seek his happiness within his own home, and double his courage by gathering it together. The principles of liberty and equality which have gained the day allow of more simplicity in life, and such simplicity of habits bring one much nearer to real and solid enjoyment than the whirl of society, and of show in general To conclude, my dear friend, I have the satisfaction of a happy outlook on the future which my change of condition offers mo, 1 As to the costliness of living in Paris, early in , HOC Taine, Le Gouvernement rtwlutionnaire.
You may be persuaded that I return them a hundredfold. Recamier's mar- riage yet more irritating. The engagement was not a long one. The business arrangement, for to our thinking it was suc h was soon concluded. The marriage certificate of Jacques Recamier and Juliette Bernard has not been found ; it is not among the Archives of the Department of the Seine.
Signe Jaquotot, Bernard, Simonart, J. Bernard, M. Bigonnet, Bergeron, A. Here the difficulty begins and interpretations vary.
One point indeed is clear beyond all possibility of doubt. Not only did Mme. Recamier never bear a child, but she certainly never was anything more to her husband than a companion, 1 Addressed "Citoyen, Lyons, Lenormant, whose testi- mony on this delicate matter is both rather courageous and very sincere, has stated as much, quite definitely.
Every one of her expressions should be weighed. Recamier received nothing more than his name from her husband. This may sound surprising, but my mission is not to explain the fact, I merely certify it, as all those who, as friends of M. Recamier, were admitted to their intimacy, might have certified it. Recamier's intercourse with his wife was never anything but paternal" We must note the word paternal, which was not unintentionally used.
To make things clearer, Mme. Lenormant adds, respecting Juliette, " she provided for all M. Recamier's needs with a prudent and daughterly affection. Recamier's adopted daughter was in a better position than any other person to define and judge so paradoxical a state of things.
With regard to such a delicate matter, a woman's judgment is more valuable than any other. If this one needed confirmation we should find it in an unpublished letter from Mme. Recamier of the " white wreath," which she is still entitled to wear, and of the happiness the future may yet hold for her.
That which Mme. Lenormant left unsaid, others have since desired to know, and this curiosity was probably not a vain one, for, delicate as the problem is, the interpretation of a whole character depends on its solution. The question was therefore taken up again. Recamier's " case " was dis- cussed, and how was the mystery to be explained otherwise than by the simplest and likewise the most brutal of sup- positions? Merimee was one of the first to embody the legend which would account for Mme.
Recamier's abnormal destiny by the. Recamier's loudly vaunted virtue. He exclaimed : Do not judge her harshly, I beg. She is to be pitied more than blamed : it was a case of force majeureS Then, with a despairing upward gesture of his arms, and looking heavenwards, he added : 6 Poor Juliette!
Cabanes has lately intervened several times, and is very definitely in favour of the theory as to a faulty conforma- tion. The least obscene is this anonymous quatrain, which brings both Chateaubriand and Mme.
Recamier on the scene. Simple and well-established as such a solution may appear, we find it impossible to accept it. One special observation forces itself upon the mind, Mme. Recamier lived till the year , during all that time we see her ill or out of health on more than one occasion, but at the most critical periods of her long life, we never discover any of those deep-seated dis- turbances which are the result, in the female organization, of i Souvenirs Utttraires.
I, pp. Article quoted p. This remark has been made by members of the medical profession. Recamier's beauty was due especially to the remarkable harmony of her physique : the continuance of this state of equilibrium, the stability of her character, the absence of irritability, the sureness of her judgment, would ill accord with the supposition as to any constitutional anomaly. But there is something else, and we must above all things rely on two arguments which strike us as being particularly strong in their simplicity.
Even with MerimeVs hypothesis nothing seems easier of acceptance than the fact of Mme. Recamier's marriage. Juliette was only fifteen : she was ignorant about life, and of certain things about herself. But later on, in , we see this same Juliette Re'camier fall in love, with all the natural- ness and sincerity of a woman in her thirtieth year, with Prince Augustus of Prussia ; we see her, according to documents which have hitherto never seen the light of publicity, carry her plan of marrying him as far as she possibly could : and her desire to accomplish it is so intense that when M.
Recamier's entreaties force her to relinquish it, she makes an attempt to kill herself. This woman of thirty cannot possibly have been ignorant of things concerning which the girl of fifteen may very well have been uninstructed. This has been remarked in a very common-sense manner, by Cuvillier-Fleury. Recarmer had been as incapable of maternity as gossip has represented her to have been, would she ever have thought of divorcing with the object of making a second marriage?
How could she ever have thought of such an alliance if she had not been sure of herself? Recamier's prudence and good faith at this grave crisis in her life? And how are we to account for the persistent delusion of a woman so little likely to be deceived as Mme. The passage from one of her letters, written in , is not the only one worth noting in Mme. Recamier who will not, I trust, commit any act unworthy of you, but who perhaps no longer has the faculties necessary for honouring your sacrifice.
Recamier accepted the proposal of marriage with Prince Augustus, she wrote to her husband, begging him to agree to a divorce. Recamier, in Mme. Lenormanfs words, expressed his "regret at having respected suscepti- bilities and repugnancies, but for which a closer bond would have forbidden all thought of such a separation. Still nothing, to our mind, can throw a clearer light than these words written by a husband to his wife, at so critical a moment, and in a letter which was certainly never intended for publication.
The outcome of it all, as we see it, is that M. Recamier had met with no physical impossibility, and it is in an endeavour to clear up the meaning of the two words susceptibilities and repugnancies that we may arrive at the truth.
The whole of this truth may never be discovered. We have already had occasion to refer to the curious book in which Mme. Mohl attempted to complete Mme. Lenormanfs story on certain points. Recamier, according to the English authoress, was Juliette Bernard's own father.
The young wife lived on with her mother for two years after her marriage. Mohl points out what an object of suspicion the banker must have been to the Committee of Public Safety. She believes that at that difficult period, when all legal inheritance stood in so much danger, the only way to ensure the trans- mission of his fortune to Juliette Bernard was to marry her. Mohl, when she recorded an explanation which she had frequently heard given, was no doubt convinced that she was establishing the truth.
Let us turn back to that letter from Recamier, which a fortunate chance has thrown into our hands. It is, no doubt, full of the correct formulas in which a man would announce the marriage he was resolved to make to his near kinsfolk. All the conventional phraseology of the period is there. Yet how carefully, from the very outset, does Recamier insist on the reasonableness of his plan : it is no sudden decision he is about to realize, it is a situation of long standing which he is going to settle.
What he says to Monsieur Delphin as to his relations with Mme. Bernard, by way of replying beforehand to the objection which may be put for- ward, his acknowledgment of a " feeling of a perhaps warmer nature " which might have preceded his friendship with that lady, is just as much acknowledgment as any gallant man might permit himself, as a hint of what discretion or grati- tude would forbid him to reveal.
To our mind, the under- standing between Jacques Recamier and the lady whose age had deprived her of any pretension beyond " that of educating her daughter," was complete. We must not forget that Recamier was an exceedingly practical man. Does he not say, at the very moment when he is describing his state of agitation, and as though to give himself the lie, that this might divert his mind from his business affairs.
And we must also note that Recamier is quite aware of his own critical position in February : at the close of his letter he excuses himself for having chosen such a moment for his marriage.
His long letter to M. Was he Juliette Recamier's father? Such an affirmation would be both indiscreet and overbold. But, amongst fall the hypotheses as to Mme. Recamier's marriage, no other seems to us so probable as that of a union arranged between Mme.
Bernard and the man whom she had obliged. It was difficult to write to M. Del- ghin what it was impossible to tell M. Bernard : There is nothing surprising in the fact that everthing should have been done to throw dust in people's eyes with regard to this union. Recamier sincerely believed that he was in great danger during the Revolution. The National Archives contain important papers proving the extent of the danger which threatened him. Bernard, might choose an expedient which, at another period and under other circumstances, would deserve a severer judg- ment.
It is not difficult to admit the existence, in this case, of one of those unconsummated marriages of such frequent occurrence towards the close of the eighteenth century. Let us quote one instance only. In , Adele Filleul, who became the wife of Baron de Souza, and published a dozen novels, the best-known of which is entitled Adele de Senanges,, had first married the Comte de Flahaut. She declared that this 1 Sow. He, unfortunately, escaped the danger he had so resolutely faced. And hence arose all the subsequent complications.
Juliette could not remain in perpetual ignorance of the circumstances which had led up to her marriage. Whether she became aware of all or only of some of them, she knew enough to make her show susceptibilities and repugnancies before which her husband could only yield.
Legally married to a man who could not be more to her than an affectionate friend, Juliette Recamier might have acted as the Marquise du Deffand had acted before her, namely, sought love in adventures, and chanced, some day, on another President Henault. Did she take this course? That we shall learn as we follow the story of her life. At this par- ticular moment all her care seems to be given to preserving her modesty. We find an innocent note of hers, hitherto un- published, addressed to Mme.
The happiness I have felt most keenly was to receive the expression of your feelings. My attachment to my husband so endears all his belongings to me that every proof they give me of their regard is precious to me. One which is very much so to me is what you say about my zeal for his happiness.
That is my sole and sweetest care, on which I have set all my hopes. The only thing lacking to us both is the delight of living amongst our own families. I earnestly hope that this happy reunion may some day take place.
I thank you for sharing this sentiment, so that you may love me a little beforehand. I shall take ad- vantage of it eagerly. Recamier's, written at this period, is known to us ; it is addressed to a friend of her childhood, but it does not tell us anything we do not already know. Recamier was a frivolous man, but he was both intelligent and kind-hearted.
It is impossible to believe that if Mme. MohFs theory had been the true one, he would have dared to pen his sentence about susceptibilities and repugnancies. However that may have been, Juliette, at a very early age, was called upon to make serious decisions. She was helped by her father's aifection ; his letters to her are most tender.
Recamier lives somewhat apart. Her beauty; her first triumphs. Meeting with Mme. Her friendship with La Harpe. Juliette's salon Lemontey, Camille Jordan and Dege"rando. Paul David. Lucien Bonaparte's love for Mme. Re"camier ; his letters. R6- camierin THE transformation of French manners and customs which marked the days after the "Terror" is an oft-told tale. Everywhere luxury reigned supreme. Dress in itself betrayed these new tendencies.
Quicherat, Histoire du costume en France, p. Vernet, by A. Durande, Hetzel, p. Some ladies wore gowns of Athenian or Roman style. There were no more sleeves, but bare arms ; no shoes, nothing but a sole fastened by ribbons crossed round the leg. The petticoat and chemise were entirely done away with. The Imaginations Hey You 9. The Five Satins All Mine The Monarchs Always Be Faithful The Excellents Coney Island Baby Tracks on Disc 6: 1.
The Magnificents Don't Leave Me 4. The Smooth Tones Dear Diary 5. The Ambassadors Darling I'm Sorry 7. The Spaniels Everyone's Laughing 8. The Matadors Vengeance 9. The Delroys Bermuda Shorts The Deltas Lamplight The Ducanes I'm So Happy The Starlarks Fountain Of Love.
Tracks on Disc 7: 1. The Devotions Rip Van Winkle 2. The Collegians Heavenly Night 3. The Dells Dreams Of Contentment 4.
The Rainbows Shirley 5. The Seniors Evening Shadows Falling 6. The Fashions Dreaming Of You 7. The Spaniels You Painted Pictures 8. The Corvairs True True Love 9. The Videos Moonglow You Know The Larks My Reverie. Tracks on Disc 8: 1. The HeartBeats Tormented 5. The Gaytunes Thrill Of Romance 7. The Suburbans Alphabet Of Love 8. The Spaniels Tina 9. Continentals Fine Fine Frame The Ladders Counting The Stars The Legends Legend Of Love Tracks on Disc 9: 1.
The Silhouettes Bing Bong 3. The Desires Rendezvous With You 5. The Opals My Heart's Desire 6. Chancellors There Goes My Girl 8. The Starlites Missing You 9. The Dells Tell The World The Classics So In Love Middle-class children will be squeezed out of Oxbridge as the universities strive to meet ambitious targets to recruit poorer youngsters, the student watchdog says. There will be 6, more students from deprived backgrounds at top universities by , according to an Office for Students OfS analysis.
Middle-class children will be squeezed out of Oxbridge as the universities strive to meet A senior police leader branded smart motorways a death trap yesterday as he accused highways chiefs of misleading the country over the policy. John Apter, chairman of the Police Federation, which represents rank-and-file A senior police leader branded smart motorways a death trap yesterday as he accused highways chiefs of misleading the Researchers reviewed 23 studies on the effects of alcohol during pregnancy on the Labour has written to all of its defeated general election candidates advising them to call or the Samaritans if Labour has written to all of its defeated general election candidates advising them to call Matt Chorley asks if No 10 knows what it is doing, why Huawei is so controversial and warns of a coming crisis.
The site in Walberton is one of only a handful found in the south of England and has yielded an A biography that pieces together an unknown Second World War mission to infiltrate Auschwitz and tell the world of A biography that pieces together an unknown Second World War mission to infiltrate Auschwitz and Few will not mourn the death at a tender 96 of Nicholas Parsons, the legend of light entertainment.
Being a simple Threats and punishments are important tools for teachers in controlling a rowdy class, but praise works better, researchers have found. Teachers who rely on negative comments, sarcasm and telling off are far less likely to see Threats and punishments are important tools for teachers in controlling a rowdy class, but praise works better Cancer patients are having to wait years for groundbreaking drugs because the approvals process has not fast-tracked them, a report has found.
Innovative drugs licensed between and took an average of Cancer patients are having to wait years for groundbreaking drugs because the approvals process has not fast-tracked Under-investigating a crime that affects so many is a serious oversight and will erode trust in our economy and society.
More than half of Britons are dissatisfied with democracy according to a new report. Scientists are making remarkable strides in the hunt for a vaccine.
Do the rich pay their fair share of tax? Au contraire. The UK has been relocating In the end it was Sunderland that showed the way again. Three and a half years earlier voters in the city had provided the first inkling that Britain was about to take the momentous decision to leave the European Union after 40 years of membership.
Three and a half years earlier voters in His guest was the comedian Vic Oliver. Plomley presented 1, editions; in academics at the University of Oxford refused to award Margaret Thatcher, the Oxford-educated prime minister, an honorary degree, in protest at education funding cuts.
This is a good time to search for elusive lesser spotted woodpeckers in the treetops. They are very small woodpeckers, easy to miss among the twigs. They have a barred black-and-white back, and the male has a red crown. Soon they will also be heard drumming. It is used to attract a mate and to warn off rivals in the vicinity, serving the same purpose as songs in other birds.
Neighbouring countries have imposed border restrictions and the US has urged its citizens to avoid travel to the country. Mr Xi met the head of the World Health Organisation to discuss countermeasures to contain the pneumonic coronavirus as Japan and China faced increasing international isolation last night as it battled a virus President Xi Islamic State fighters have staged a series of guerilla attacks in Iraq and Syria during a pause in American and Islamic State fighters have staged a series of guerilla attacks in Iraq and Syria during a pause in American and British operations, experts have said.
Isis sleeper cells have stepped up ambushes and terror attacks in recent weeks, killing and wounding dozens of soldiers and civilians. The attacks have raised fears Islamic State fighters have staged a series of guerilla attacks in Iraq and Syria during a pause in American and British President Trump proposed a radical redrawing of the map of Israel yesterday as he upended decades of American policy The space race is being reshaped as the US Congress looks to prioritise Mars over the moon.
The agency aims to land the first woman — A man has gone on trial in Germany charged with trying to kill his male tennis partner by stirring poison into his A man has gone on trial in Germany charged with trying to kill his male tennis partner by Tracking devices installed in lecture halls to monitor student attendance have raised fears of Big Brother intrusion Tracking devices installed in lecture halls to monitor student attendance have raised fears of Stronger iPhone sales than Wall Street had expected helped Apple to a record quarterly profit last night that beat forecasts and extended a rally in its shares.
The iPhone maker also cruised past revenue estimates, sending its stock up after hours to record highs. Stronger iPhone sales than Wall Street had expected helped Apple to a record quarterly profit last night that beat forecasts Three and a half years after the Serious Fraud Office and other law agencies began investigations into the use of middlemen to facilitate lucrative deals, Airbus has reached a settlement on the Interest rates should be left unchanged tomorrow because economic confidence is returning and a budget stimulus is planned, a panel of leading experts has concluded.
Interest rates should be left unchanged tomorrow because economic confidence is returning and a budget stimulus is Companies have grown more confident about taking on workers since the election because the lingering political uncertainty of last year has cleared, a survey of recruiters has found.
Sentiment about the economy and hiring Companies have grown more confident about taking on workers since the election because the lingering political A group of balaclava-clad Manchester United fans launched fireworks at the home of Ed Woodward last night as the protest Length of tar concrete sidewalks, 45, feet 8.
Length of cement concrete sidewalks, 2, ". Including the roads in use at the present time, as well as the old main roads that are but little used, but not discontinued.
Total length of roads, Total length of streets, For a brief history of the highways of Keene and a table of the lengths of the streets and roads, see present Report. Including the location and kinds of all bridges with a span of five feet and upwards. Stone Wood. The lower bridge over the canal, or tail race in South Keene is maintained by D.
This list contains a reference to all the streets and roads that have been laid out in Keene, that can be identified, or located at the present time. Prior to the year , the roads were not described by courses and distances, therefore are more difficult to locate, and it has been impossible to do so in several instances. The volume and page noted, refer to the town and city records, unless otherAvise specified, the roads having been laid out by the selectmen prior to , and by the board of mayor and aldermen since that time.
The volume marked "O," is the old record book, beginning with the incorporation of the town in , and continuing until , when the new volume was marked "1. Dis- continued Nov. Laid out in nearly the same location, Nov.
From Elliot to Marlboro street it was laid out as part of Elliot street, which see. It is 50 feet wide. Adams i-ourt — A name formerly given to that part of AVilson street north of Emerald street. Now a court, not laid ont by the city, running westerly from Adams street. Allen court — A part of the old Cheshire turnpike, which see.
There is no recent layout of this court. Appian Way — The location of one of the original Proprietors' roads, laid out Oct. A road was laid out in the same location, crossing Ashuelot river, Feb. IG, , vol. It was extended southerly, Sept. O, page At the town meet- ing, March 12, , voted to appoint a committee to in- vestigate the title of the town to this road, running from Main street, near the residence of Miss Catherine Fiske, to the Ashuelot river.
A marginal note on the record says, "sold to John G. Bond by the Proprietors. A grade was established on the south walk, Oct. Appleton street — An early road was laid out from the "Meet- inghouse plat," to the river and Ash Swamp, a little south of the present street, and passing the old burying ground. It was changed from the south to the north side of lot 54 in It was laid out by the selectmen to the river, Sept.
Was laid out in its present loca- tion by the selectmen, as a private road to the bridge over the river, July 1. Laid out as a public highway Nov. It is 30 feet in width, except along the river bank, where it is 33 feet wide. Arch street — A name recently given to a part of the Chester- field road, which see. Armory street — Laid out to Spruce street, June 26, , vol. Extended to North street, July 12, , vol. Again extended June 24, , vol.
The street is 40 feet wide. Ashuelot street — Laid out Dee. Three rods wide. Ash Swamp road — See West street, also Meadow roads. Baker street — One of the earliest roads. Laid out by the Pro- prietors in , from the toAvn street, through lands of Capt. Hall and others, to Lieut. Heaton 's, at the south part of Beech Hill. Laid out by the selectmen, March 5, , vol. Seth Heaton 's and beyond. Was probably the beginning of the road to Townsend that was laid out by the Proprietors in , and was the beginning of the old road to Boston.
It formerly ran more to the south, at the east end, as did Marlboro street from thence to Beech Hill. The course of Baker street was changed, and made straight, March 1, , vol. O, page , or soon after the Third New Hampshire Turnpike was built. Was re-surveyed as "Isaac Gray's road" in , vol.
Baldwin street — From Elm to Armory street, it was laid out in connection with Armory street, June 26, , vol. Extended to Forest street, Aug. It was laid out 40 feet wide. Barcomb street — xV private road leading easterly from Sullivan street. Barker street — Laid out Sept.
Was discontinued. March 11, Was again laid out from Prison street to Beaver brook, Dec. Was again laid out in the same location, Nov. This Avas probably not done, for on March 5, , vol.
Extended to the east line of Woodland cemetery, May 21, , vol. Widened on the north side from Washington street to Beaver brook, June 30, , vol. Widened on the south side from Washington street to John Ben- nett's, Sept. Extended to Oak street, Feb. Extended to Terrace street, July 2, Grade of the north walk established, and concrete ordered in Beaver Brook road — See Gilsum road via Beaver brook.
Beech street— Was laid out May 21, , vol. Beech Hill middle road — See Roxbury middle road. Beech Hill summit road — See Nurse road. Belvedere road — See Wilder road. Benford place — A private way southerly from Winchester street.
Blake street — The south end of this street was laid out as a court leading northerly from Appian Way, June 7, It was extended southerly to AVinchester street Sept.
The street was laid out 40 feet wide. Blossom street. West Keene — Laid out June 3, , vol. Boston place — Leading southerly from Baker street, laid out May 12, , vol. No early layout of this road has been identified. It was re-surveyed in , vol. Laid out in part, from the Roxbury, or old Packersfield road to the house of Ebenezer Page, March 7, , vol.
Laid out between the Roxbury south and middle roads, March 10, , vol. Relaid from the l ridge on the Roxbury road to the house of Ebenezer Page, Feb. Laid out by the court the entire length, in , Court records, vol.
Part of old road discontinued Nov. Was laid out three rods wide. Bridge court — A private way leading southerly from West street, west of the Ashuelot river bridge. Laid out from Elislia Ellis' to the old Sullivan road. May 27, , vol. This included part of the present Sullivan road. Was re-surveyed in , vol. Brook street — The south end of this street was laid out as Spring court, Oct. Was extended to Beaver street, Nov.
It is 33 feet wide. Grade established on the east sidewalk, Aug. Brown, Ammi, road — From the original location of the old No. Laid out in April, , vol. Alterations made Nov.
Burr avenue — A private way leading northerly from Park avenue. Butler court— Laid out Dec. Carpenter street— Laid out May Carroll street— Laid out Jan.
Castle street — Laid out in connection with Ashuelot street, Dec. Cemetery streets — Two streets laid out from Woodland ceme- tery to George street. The first was laid from the north end of Summit Avenue, Sept. The second from the northwest gate of the cemetery, June 15, , vol. Central avenue — At Edgewood. Laid out April 21, , vol. Central Square — Formerly called the Common. There has been no formal layout of Central Square, except as much as is covered by the laying out of Washington street on the east, and Court street on the west.
It is the natural space formed by the intersection of the radiating streets, and seems to have been dedicated to public use, and the lines defined by the lines of the adjoining lands. These lines fol- low the lines of the buildings on the west side, about six feet south of the building line, or a few inches south of the buttresses of the First Congregational church, on the north side, and along the line of the buildings on the east side, except at the southwest corner of the Bank block, where the building stands back about three feet from the line.
It contains, within these lines a little more than two acres in area. Curb line on the west side, from West to Winter streets, and grade in front of the Russell block and Ashuelot Bank, established Nov. In G the town purchased of Capt.
Josiah Richardson for the sum of twenty pounds about one acre of land north and west of the meeting-house, bounded south and east on the roads as then established, and west on Mr. Richard- son's garden. This land together with the roads comprised a larger part of our Central square. In , Joseph Dorr and wife sold to the town of Keene a triangular strip of land west of the Common ' ' for the use of the Common and no other purpose. Extended to Mid- dle street, May 28, , vol.
Seven feet of the easterly end of the extension was laid out 23 feet wide and the rest 29 feet. Widened at the east end, Oct. Chapman road — From the Marlboro road, near schoolhouse No. Re-surveyed in , vol. Course changed near the Cheshire railroad, March 13, , vol. Old road near the Cheshire rail- road discontinued Aug.
Cheshire Turnpike — From Court street, northerly, on the east side of the river, to Surry and thence to Drewsville and Charlestown. Charter granted in The present Allen court is a part of this road. That part from the north house on Allen court to the Holbrook house, near Goose pond, was discontinued by the Court in , Court records, vol.
See Surry east road. Chesterfield road — The first road to Chesterfield was over the Daniels Hill road, passing by the southwest corner of Keene. See AVest street and the Daniels Hill road.
The first layout identified as describing the present Chesterfield road was made by the Court from the Keene meeting-house to Chesterfield, in , Court records, vol. This road was laid through a corner of Westmoreland. Altera- tions were made near the AVestmoreland line Sept. Course changed by the town, October, , vol.
Correspond- ing part of the former road was discontinued by the Court in , Court records, vol. Re-surveyed from the Common to the line of Westmoreland in , vol. Alterations made from Jotham Parker's, easterly, Oct. Part of the road from Dickinson's Mills to Chesterfield, laid out in , discontinued by the Court in , Court records, vol. Road changed near the Lincoln tavern, near the top of the hill, June 8, , vol. Discon- tinued from Stephen Russell's to the Whitcomb Mills road in , vol.
Part of the old road up Chester- field hill discontinued in , as well as that portion from the Lincoln tavern, up the hill to the line of Westmoreland, vol. The rest of the old road east of the Lin- coln tavern was discontinued in , vol. The road, as originally laid out, ran in almost a straight course, without regard to grade, from the base of the hill to the top, the numerous changes noted above finally established it in its present course. Chestnut street — Laid out June 28, , vol. Church street — Called on old deeds, "Frog lane.
Extended to Lincoln street, Feb. Widened and straightened from Main street to Beaver brook, July 24, , vol. Grade established and concrete ordered on the north and south walks, Main street to Beaver brook, Sept. Widened on the south side between Main and Wells streets. May 12, , vol. Clover street — A former name given to Grant street.
Colorado street — Laid out July 16, , vol. It is 30 feet wide at West street, 33 feet at Castle street, and of various widths between those points. Grade of east and west walks established May 27, , vol. The early layout of this road from Beaver brook, up Beech hill, to the junction of the old Sullivan or Sawyer road has not been identified.
From that point it was included in a layout made in February, , vol. A road was laid from the James Wright place easterly, in February. Laid out from the bridge over B'eaver brook to Ephriam Wright's, near the top of the hill, November, , Vol. O, page , four rods wide. Laid out and altered from James Wright's to the Roxbury line, Sept. This layout was over the course of the present Sullivan road, northeasterly, to near the Nahum Wright place, then occupied by Amos Wood, thence southeasterly to the Branch, and up the Branch as now travelled, to the line of Roxbury.
This road was extended by the Court from the Roxbury line, through Roxbury, Sullivan, Nelson, Stoddard and Antrim, in , to connect with the Hillsboro road to Concord, Court rec- ords, vol.
A new course was laid from James Wright's, easterly, Oct. This located the Concord road in its present course from James Wright's to the Branch. Re-surveyed from the Common to James Wright's in , vol. Old road up "Crying hill" discontinued Nov.
Old road from near Wm. Alterations made by the Court up "Crying hill" in , Court records, vol. Widened, straightened and graded from near schoolhouse No. Congress street — Laid out Sept. Coolidge street — Laid out June 30, , vol. Howard street. Grade established on north and south sidewalks and roadway, July 6, , vol.
C ottage street — Laid out Jan. A road from the "Ash Swamp road," running "up the river" was laid out May 5, , vol. This road followed near the present location of School street, to the angle of Leverett street, thence along the bank, and entered the present course of Court street near the Sun Tavern.
This road was laid on the east side of the river, and continued nearly to the Surry line. A branch was laid from this road across the river, and to the line of Surry, west of the river, March 6, , vol.
Laid out by the Court from the Keene meeting-house to Surry, and alterations made, in , Court records, vol. Course near and over the river changed Jan. Course changed near Fisher brook, March 4, , vol. This was laid over the present line of Court street, except along the Common, where it ran west of the old Court house, near where the present business blocks stand.
Again laid out from the Common to Abijah Wilder 's house, March 4, , vol. This layout established the street in its present location. The Third New Hamp- shire was given up as a turnpike in , and the selectmen laid out a road over the same course, Dec. A new layout was made from the Common to Walpole through Surry, by the Court, in , Court records, vol. Grade of east sidewalk, and concrete voted, Vernon to High street, June 5, , vol. Grade of east and west walks and turf line established.
Grade of east walk established from Forest street, northerly, and concrete ordered, July 31, , vol. Grade of the center line to North street estal lished. Grade established and cement sidewalk ordered from School street to the north line of W. Porter's lot, April Court Square — Private rights of way in the rear of liall's and the First Church blocks.
Graig road — From the Westmoreland road, southwesterly, to the former house of Balcarras Craig. Early layout not identified. Re-surveyed in Discon- tinued. Crescent street — Laid out March Cross street — Laid out Feb. Re-sur- vey and alterations. June 23, Re- surveyed in , vol. Widened at the west end, on the north side. Widened on the north side, Washington to Carroll street, June 3, , vol. Grade of north sidewalk established and concrete ordered, July 8, , vol.
Crossfield street — Laid out in connection with the extension of Dunbar street, Oct. Cypress street — A private way leading easterly from Main street to the railroad yards. Dakin road — Formerly in Keene, now in Roxbury, from the old Packersfield road, southeasterly towards the Roxbury juarries and the upper dam of the Keene Water Works.
Damon court — Laid out June 12, , vol. Part of this road now included with West street. Laid out from the Causeway to Ash Swamp, March 5, , vol. Extended to the line of Chesterfield, March 6, , vol. This was the first road laid out to the town of Chesterfield.
Extended to the Swanzey line, from the Daniels house, July, , vol. Course changed near Ebenezer Clark's. Again changed, Feb. Part of the old road from Daniels Hill, southwester- ly towards Chesterfield, re-surveyed in , under the name of Eli Dort's road, vol. The old road up Daniels Hill discontinued March Laid out March, , vol. Laid out Oct. Dartmouth street — Laid out Jan. Davis street — Laid out Feb. Widened from Wilson street to Ralston street, June 7, , by adding seven feet to the south side, vol.
Diphthong AHey — A private passage and right of way. Dort, Eli, road — See Daniels Hill road. Douglass street — Laid out Feb. Have not found a record of any layout north of Beaver street. Dover street— Laid out July Dufi'y court— Laid out Oct. I unl ar street — Formerly called Dun] ar's lane. Laid out Dec. Extended to. Extended easterly to land of the Cheshire Railroad Co. The first layout was 30 feet wide and the extensions were 33 feet. The north line between lands of Mrs.
Cooper and F. No record made. The east end from the line of land of the Lancaster Shoe Co. Grade of the north sidewalk established, and concrete ordered, Nov. Grade of south walk established, Oct. Eagle court — A private way south of the Eagle Hotel. Eastern avenue- — Laid out by the Court.* Richmond Hill, Ontario, CAN by Praguefrank SESSIONS unknown – Marlee Scott MY ONLY SOUVENIR I FALL IN LOVE TOO FAST