Cooperative learning is the learning process in which individuals learn in a small group with the help of each other. Cooperative learning gives importance to cooperation as against our present educational system, which is based on competition.
Cooperation rather than competition is the predominant characteristics of human beings. People are bonded together by love and cooperation and it is this quality on which the survival of human kind is based. The present paper discusses the concept and salient features of cooperative learning. Content uploaded by Dr. Author content All content in this area was uploaded by Dr.
Yash Pal Singh on Jan 06, Content may be subject to copyright. Indian Streams Research Journal. ISSN:- Available online at www. Yash Pal Singh 1 and Anju Agrawal 2. C oop er at ive le arn in g giv es i mpor tance t o cooper ati on as aga inst our pres ent. Without the coop eration of its members society cannot survive, an d the societ y of man has survived. It was not an advantageous individual here. In human societies the individuals who are most likely to survive are those.
On e of t he leg aci es inh erit ed to the sci enti st s of th e twen tie th cent ur y from Cha rles Dar win has. A dopt ed by t he " Socia l.
It is di fficult t o think of adult activit ies in whi ch the. B ec au se. Suc h com pe ti ti on do es h ave som e neg ati ve effe cts. E ven h igh achie vers ma y not ach iev e. How students perceiv e each other and interact with one another is a neglected aspect of in structio n. How teachers structure student -student interaction. There are three basic way s students can interact with eac h other as they learn.
They can compete to see who. Of the three interaction. Research indicates that a vast majority of students view school. This competitive expectation is already. An a lternativ e to tra ditio nal competitive classroom is cooperative l earning. Co oper ati ve lear nin g is th e. Coop era ti ve. The m or e comp etit ion i n a person , nec essa ril y then , by logi cal an d biol ogi cal.
Notabl e r esist ance t o the idea of m utual ex clu si ve n ess of. T his coex iste nce doe s n ot nec essa rily di min ish th e. Coo per ati on r ath er t han comp eti tion is the pred omi nan t cha ra cter ist ics o f h um an bei ng s. Pe opl e. Peo pl e dev el op th eir att it ude s an d val ues from soc ia l in ter act io n. Alth ou gh we le ar n. Th ese values and attitudes very often are left untaught in our schools.
O ur classrooms rely solely o n. Keepin g in vi ew the dr awbacks of the m ost. Cooper ative learning is one such stra tegy. Between and , Johnson and Johnson conducted seventeen studies on the effectiveness of.
Students involved were from kindergarten through nin th grades. Two approaches to peer m ediatio n were studied The studies we re conducted in r ural, subu rban, and urban setti ngs. The training. Eleven of the studies in volved control groups. In seven of the. In nine of t he studies teachers were rotated across conditions.
The findings indicated that. Th e results further demonstrated that conflict resolution procedures can be taught. Tripathy advo cated that when the coo perative group situation is use d, it c ou ld c reate a no n-th reate ning. The y fin d it muc h l ess th re ate ni ng to ma ke a mistake in. The verbalizatio n and feedb ack from peers help t o reinforce all those sk il l s th at the.
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In recent y ear s , v arious le g islati v e and re g ulator y instrume n ts ha v e been enacted in a. In addition to the objecti v e of. This mo v ement h a s resu l ted. Undoubtedl y , modern a pproaches to urban d ra i na g e s y st e m des i g n c a n result in solution s. Ho w e v er, the y must be desi g ned and impl e mented corre c tl y and must b e maintained i f the y.
Clear ly , in this sense, s y stem s must be des i g ned. Failure to. I n man y case s , str u ct u res o r f a cilities will be re q uired for the e x press purpose o f. In poorl y desi g ned s y stems, maintenance is li k el y to be f ra u g ht w ith dif f i culties. As a result, s u ch a.
Suc h s y stem s ha v e o f ten b e en applied in situation s w here space is a. For e x ample, the y are o fte n installed underne a th th e. Sediments p resent a challen g e in th e.
Ho w e v er, in practic e , such o pportunities a re not. Stor m w at e r S torage. A t y pical modular st o r a g e bloc k w ould compris e. One concern fr e q uentl y raised relatin g to the use o f modul a r bloc k st o r a g e s y stems is th a t,. Such deposits could ha v e the effect o f reduci n g st o r a g e v olumes, and coul d. In man y modular blo c k s y stems, th e f eed a nd drain pipes t e rminate at the up s tre a m an d.
H o w e v er, in this case, it is clear tha t. An alternati v e arran g e men t. Basic schem a tic illustr a tions o f th e s e. Faram and Gu y mer also reported in Faram et al. In t h e e x perimental stud i es, in w hich specialist s ediment traci n g techn i q u es w ere applied to.
Photograph s ta k en duri n g the stud y , and sediment concentration traces f or each. Notabl y , thi s corresponds w ith a se d iment tran s fer r a te. Con v ersel y , f or. Outp u ts f r o m CFD studies performed usi n g the Fluent s o f t w are pro v ide a.
An additional component o f the stud y presented b y Gu y mer in v o lved the introductio n. In this case, the under p iped s y stem a g ain. A brupt Entr y and Exit Points. T ime s. Relative Con centration. Sediment Conce n tr a tion. Plastic Bags Trapped a t the Inlet. M ean Retention Time s : , M ass Balance: 0. Vi e w of th e ch a mber dur i ng installation.
Vi e w of th e ch a mber a ft e r installation. M ean Retention Time s : Stor m w at e r T reatment. W h ile f or s tor a g e ch a mbers disc u ssed pre v iousl y , it is desirable t hat sediments a r e. W h ile the industr y has g enerall y been conc e rned w ith the per f o rmance o f sed i men t. Research has demonstrated that.
Recent studies b y Far a m and Har w ood a nd Phipps et al. Fi g ure 8 fr o m Phipps et al. For the simple linear s eparat o r, all o f th e. This s u g g es ts that thi s s y stem m ay e v en be able to ret a in polluted solute s.
These stud y outputs cl e arl y h i g hli g ht the sensit iv i t y o f sediment interce p tor performance t o.University of Nebraska at Omaha [email protected] Kabul Times Digitized Newspaper Archives Kabul Times (February 13, , vol. 1, no. ).