Would you like to view this in our Canadian edition? Would you like to view this in our UK edition? Would you like to view this in our Australian edition? Would you like to view this in our Asia edition? Would you like to view this in our German edition?
Welcome back. Sign in to comment to your favorite stories, participate in your community and interact with your friends. Seuss Quotes To Live By. Just some words of wisdom to simply think about. University of Rhode Island. Things as simple but as exhilarating as a sunrise to start your day, a breathtaking sunset to end it and all the happiness in between.
Something as small as a blossoming daisy or as big as a cloud shaped like an upside down elephant. Someone as young as a baby who waves to you on the line at the grocery store, or an elderly man who smiles at you because you look like somebody that he used to know.
These things come easy, but some things you have to look around for. This doesn't just literally mean having your eyes closed. New experiences, new people, and new journeys. These things can make the best memories. The signal from Q2 is amplified by Q3, which triggers IC2, a That IC operates in the monostable mode, and it provides a pulse output with a width of as much as 2. That pulse output energizes relay RY1, and that reverses the polarity of the voltage applied to the motor.
Cor- responding portions of the circuit of the left eye operate in the same fashion, using the unused half of the IC1-b. That action causes the robot to turn away from an obstacle. When an obstacle appears in front of both eyes, both relays will be activated, so the robot will back up. The circuit composed of Q8-Q10 and associated compo- nents provides additional "on" time forthe right motor. That helps the robot avoid getting trapped in a narrow passage.
Construction Construction of the circuit is not critical, so feel free to use the tech- nique you prefer. Just be careful with the orientation of polarized components and semiconductors. The circuit can operate from any voltage between 4. Potentiometers R4 and R8 adjust the sensitivity of the phototran- sistors; you might adjust them to respond to an obstacle that is twelve inches away.
Potentiome- ters R11 and R13 control the amount of time the motors will be reversed. That will depend partly on the surface your robot is trav- ersing.
Too little time on a rough surface might not affect direction at all, and too much time could cause constant overshooting. You'll have to experiment a lit- tle. Completely au- tomatic. Uses power from the telephone line itself. Never needs a battery! Up to Va mile range. Use with any FM radio. Tax included. Your single source for precision tools used by electronic technicians, engine- ers, instrument mechanics, schools, labora- tories and government agencies.
Also con- tains Jensen's line of more than 40 tool kits. Send for your free copy today! Super reception 7db thresh- old!! Quantity dis- counts. C band feeds. Yushica positively the best we've ever seen.
Whatever you have, replace it. Private labels welcomed 50 units. Office B7-B, S. Ridge wood Ave. Includes built- in true stereo simulator for stations not yet broadcasting in stereo. Quan- tity discounts. Box , Dublin, PA, This all-purpose Standard PanaVise tilts, turns and rotates.
Consisting of a Standard Base, Model and a Head, the has nylon jaws with a satin finish for a firm grip. Just one convenient control knob locks work firmly in any position. Telephone Telex These oak built, sinewave downconverter-de scram biers are surplus pull outs and are worth many times this price in parts alone.
Descram biers are untested and without A. Modules from S4. Box , Hialeah, FL Risetime less than 17ns one year limited warranty. Lycoming St. This unit, a miniature video transmitter, conveniently transmits UHF signals to remote television locations within a ' range.
Signal inputs from VCR. For major appliances air conditioners, refrigerators, washers, dryers, microwaves, etc. Basics of solid state, setting up shop, test instruments. Free brochure. Detail instruction manual for modifcation is included.
Allow weeks delivery. Up to 1 mile range. So sensitive, it will pick-up a whisper 50 feet away! Install six factory as- sembled circuit boards to complete.
Huntrons patented p. Probes feature extenda- ble tips that get into tight places. Stainless steel electrodes are insulated with a 2 kV coating to protect against shorting.
Sharp points pierce epoxy and won't slip off con- tracts. This infor- mation packed book details the methods used by subscription TV companies to scramble and descramble video signals. Includes circuit schematics, the- ory, and trouble shooting hints. This top-level training supports the industry's claim that the best technicians today are those who service VCRs. Integrated Three- Way Self-Teaching Program In one integrated program, NRI gives you a study guide, 9 instructional units, 2 hours of video training tapes accompanied by a page workbook that pulls it all together.
At home or in your shop, you'll cover all the basic concepts of video recording, mechani- cal and electronic systems analyses, and the latest troubleshooting tech- niques. Your workbook and instruction- al units also contain an abundance of diagrams, data, and supplementary material that makes them valuable addi- tions to your servicing library.
You'll enjoy expert lectures and see animation and video graphics that make every point crystal-clear. You'll follow the camera eye into the heart of the VCR as step-by-step servicing tech- niques are shown. Both electronic and mechanical troubleshooting are covered. You'll get training in capacitance and optical video disc players, projec- tion TV, and video cameras.
All are in- cluded to make you the complete video technician. Covers Beta and VHS systems with actual instruction on videotape. NRI has trained more television technicians than any other electronics school! In fact, NRI has consistently led the way in developing troubleshoot- ing techniques for servicing virtually every piece of home entertainment equipment as it appears in the market- place.
Satisfaction Guaranteed. Examine it for 15 full days, look over the lessons, sample the videotape. If you're not fully satisfied thai this is the kind of training you and your people need to get into the profit- able VCR servicing business, return it for a prompt and full refund, including postage. Act now, and start adding new business to your business. VCR servicing. Personal robots hold the promise of creating even greater excitement than the computer.
With their capabilities of move- ment and manipulation, personal robots have the potential to interact extensively with every member of the family. Blas- phemous as it might seem, robots might even replace the family dog in some households. So where are all of these robots? How close are we to that robot "explosion? Where can you obtain such a robot? Those are just some of the questions that we'll answer in this article.
What is a personal robot? Most of you are probably familiar with the uses of robots in industry. Numerous television and film documentaries, most notably on PBS, have shown industrial robot-arms painting cars in Detroit or re- moving blistering-hot liquid from a fur- nace in Pennsylvania.
Those examples depict the industrial use of robotics to improve production under somewhat haz- ardous factory conditions. But robot arms are not the entire realm of robotics.
For that matter, robot arms, though most com- mon, do not represent the only possible industrial application of robotics. Indeed, the possibilities are almost endless. The same can be said for a "personal" robot. A personal robot can take almost any form, as long as it does not require an "industrial" environment in which to op- erate not too many of us have pneumatic tubing, etc.
All of us can think of possible applica- tions for mechanical slaves around the house. Some of the more obvious uses would be mowing the lawn, washing clothes and taking out the garbage.
Others include vacuuming the carpets and walk- ing the dog. Unfortunately, the scope of those applications is too ambitious — beyond the capability of most currently available robots; and that is severely limit- ing the market. Personal Robots The robots are coming! The robots are coming! Find out when, and what form they'll take, in this informative survey of the personal-robot field. By the mid 's, hundreds of thou- sands of people owned personal comput- ers. But many of those computers, particularly the less expensive ones, even- tually wound up in the back of the closet.
Once the novelty of the new machine wore off, the reality was that only a relatively small number of people had a real need for a computer in the home; for everyone else, it was a device without an application. The situation with personal robots is very different. There, we have many applica- tions, but no machine yet that is capable of performing more than a few of them. The RB-5X looked to be little more than atrash can with wheels and a clear plastic top.
A closer look re- vealed that that machine was equipped with collision sensors and a full-fledged microcomputer system that could be pro- grammed in BASIC.
The RB-5X was basically a toy for the dedicated hardware experimenter. Its me- chanical abilities were not much more re- fined than a radio-controlled car. The mi- crocomputer could only be programmed by using an external dumb terminal — something that is not found in most house- holds. But it did provide a starting point for would-be robot experimenters. Shortly after the birth of the RB-5X, the Heath company announced the birth of what was to become the best-selling per- sonal robot to date, the Hero I.
That robot, like thcRB-SX, was equipped with a motorized base and microcomputer. However, included with the package were several sensors for measuring light, sound, motion, and distance. Those, and the addition of an arm and voice-synthesis module, placed the Hero more firmly into the category of what everyone thinks of when the word "robot" is mentioned.
Much like early personal computers, the Hero could be programmed via a keypad. If one were to plot a time-line of the history of personal robots versus that of the PC it would show that the Hero is the robotic equivalent of the Altair micro- computer.
Since those beginnings several things have happened. Many other firms have entered the market with robot kits and completely assembled units. A Texas- based marketing-research firm, Future Computing, has forecast that the personal robotics market would be larger than that for the personal computer, and that that market was about to "take off. In , a magazine survey showed that there were 18 viable robotics products and manufacturers to choose from. Those products ranged from simple two-wheel- ed remotely operated devices called "tur- tles" to large-android-like, sophisticated robots.
Many of the fledgling robotics firms were exceedingly small, some oper- ating out of their owner's homes, or shar- ing space with other companies. Some sold only a few units; others, like An- drobot, sold several hundred. In the latter case, Androbot's main product, called Topo, appeared to be an ideal robot sys- tem. It was large the size of a six-year-old child and, it had a unique drive-wheel system. They came with a disk of software routines that allowed the user to control the robot's motion via the computer's joystick.
One obvious limitation of the Topo was that it was incapable of undirected mo- tion. Androbot promised to correct that problem in a proposed robot named BOB; that name was an anagram for Brains On Board. While full details were not re- leased, indications were that the robot would be equipped with on-board micro- processors.
Those microprocessors would analyze the data from "vision" sensors and use that data to control the robot's motion. Using that system, the robot re- portedly would be able to seek out or follow its owner, even in a crowded room. But, then what? The robot was not to be equipped with any manipulative ca- pabilities it had no "arm" , so what did it do when it approached the owner? Its only ability was to tell a joke, via a voice- synthesis circuit, from a stored library.
Obviously, such hardware is not suffi- cient to launch a new marketplace. The chief problem remains one of supplying the hardware that will perform an applica- tion that many people want. It is the op- posite of the problems in the computer industry where the hardware exists, but finding an appropriate application is diffi- cult. Of the companies currently producing robots.
Heath has done well because they designed their robots to be used as teach- ing tools, and they support them with a wealth of excellent study courses.
Others have tried to produce either a general- purpose motorized toy that can only move and slightly entertain, or, on the other extreme, a high-priced replacement for a 95 -cent joke book.
Today, despite optimism and high hopes, the persona! Of those compa- nies that have already introduced robot products, about half have faded from the scene altogether, or are not currently in a position to adequately service the con- sumer. There are, of course, new man- ufactures appearing and unfortunately disappearing on the scene all the time. Even large companies are not immune to the vagarities of the current market.
Several toy companies have introduced robot products. Those products are noi toys; many compare favorably with the RB and Heath robots already mentioned. The forerunner among that group were Ideal and Tomy. The mechanics in their products were elegant; and because toy companies are so cost-conscious, all the mechanical parts were designed to have multiple functions. Ideal marketed a pro- grammable version of the popular cartoon character Maxx Steele. That robot was designed specifically for upgradability.
It had an Atari-like cartridge port for add- ons and a serial interface to its RF remote- controller. The documentation suggested that an expansion port and a sonar inter- face would be available in the future. Now, that future seems to be a long way off. In November of the division of Ideal responsible for Maxx Steele was sold off, thereby burying the product.
Our survey To find out the state of the market, we contacted over 20 personal-Yobotics man- ufacturers. Their products were investi- gated — we followed the same steps that you would in purchasing a personal robot. All products mentioned in this article were available for general sale at press time. The prices quoted were accurate at the end of Obviously, all the features of each product could not be listed in tabular form; however the most prominent fea- tures are listed in Table 1. Also, each product is described in more detail below.
All of the robots have been listed in one of four general categories; arms, turtles, rovers, and miscellaneous. All the arm products are just that. They contain no provision for mounting a base or other rover- 1 ike features. Turtles are small rover- like machines that are slaved to a personal computer.
They require a cable, power supply, and some software running in the host computers. Rovers are complete robot systems that contain an on-board microcomputer and the ability to maneu- ver about a room. In "miscellaneous" we will look at some robot products that do not til into our other categories.
Arms The Rhino Robots N. Mattis Ave. Built using aircraft-grade alumi- num, those robots are of fine quality. The motors that run the arm are servo type; they are DC motors that have integral op- tical encoders. Pulses from the encoders tell the microcomputer controller of the position of the arm. The motors drive the linkages through a series of chain drive belts. The robot has the heaviest lifting capabilities of any similarly priced prod- uct — almost three pounds.
The arms themselves are only a small part of the Entire automation system that is supplied. Simple ASCII commands are used to operate all motors; a micro- processor-based control is located in the base of the arm. Interaction with the "out- side world" is provided via an RS interface.
Several other robot devices and ser- vices are offered by Rhino. For instance, they provide indexing tables and control- lable conveyer belts. With those, it is pos- sible to create a complete, working assembly- line operation. One note on all of that; Rhino quality does not come cheap.
Figure on spending about two thousand dollars for a very basic set of materials. It is similar to the XR Series from Rhino. However, all the motors are step- per types and the arm is moved via a cable system; that cable system is much like the ones used by the toy steam-shovels that you may have played with when you were young.
The arm mechanics are enclosed in a rather attractive package. The arm can be computer-controlled via an RS in- terface. The Alpha arms, like those from Rhi- no, are high-quality units. The most sig- nificant difference between the two is the use of stepper motors in the Alpha; that allows for a greater degree of re- peatability.
That is important if re- petitious tasks, such as those found on an assembly line, are to be performed. De- spite their relatively high cost, there is no other product currently on the market that will do if you have a serious interest in arms or manipulators. Those arms are miniature versions of the ones found in industry.
Called Nomad, that turtle comes complete with a well- writ ten manual and a wealth of dem- onstration programs. The Nomad itself is equipped with a two-stepper-motor drive and an on-board ultrasonic ranger. The Nomad is by far the easiest turtle to control to date.
It is much more sophisti- cated than the earlier devices that you might be familiar with. Typically, those were little more than DC motors and four micro switches connected to a computer. Although those devices sold well to schools investigating the benefits of the LOGO programming language, they were useful for little else. Even more sophisticated is Rhino Robot's Scorpion. That unit is the most full-featured turtle on the market today. In fact we hesitate to classify it as a turtle because it has on-board "intelligence".
But it still needs to be linked to a host computer for control, and it requires an external volt, 5-amp power source. The most prominent features of the Scorpion are its software command set, and its vision scanner. The latter has the ability of scanning an area in front of the robot and reporting the varying light levels encountered.
The on-board "intelligence" that we mentioned consists of a based con- troller and 2K of RAM. The RAM stores both the commands sent to it and the sam- ples of ambient light taken by the control- ler.
The on-board computer can be expanded, but the interface uses the old KIM standard. Perhaps the most serious drawback of the unit is that it is only available in kit form. Normally that would not present a problem, especially to regular readers of Radio-Electronics; however, the assem- bly documentation is absolutely terrible.
As such, its assembly can only be recom- mended for someone with a great deal of project building experience. The unit features an advanced on-board 65Cbased control system. Altogether there are three microprocessors. Its navigation system includes 9 ultra- sonic collision-avoidance sensors. In ad- dition, there is an LCD readout and detachable keyboard for programming in BASIC, and provisions for the addition of an on-board mass -storage device either wafer tape or 3. Gemini will seek out its charging base when its batteries run low.
The machine performs well and its doc- umentation is excellent. For those who want to build their own variation of the Gemini, the manufacturer will sell all the parts that go into it separately, including the shell! Unfortunately there is no arm yet available for the unit. It's Hero family ranges from a preprogram- med pet- like robot, named Hero Jr.
All Heath robots come in pre-assembled and kit form. With the addition of an optional ROM cartridge adapter, the robot can ac- cept a BASIC language cartridge that al- lows the user to program its action much like its older brother, Hero 1. Other op- tions include an RF remote console for putting the robot through its paces without need of a connecting cable, and a number of pre-programmed demonstration and utility cartridges.
As mentioned, the Hero Jr. In its basic form, the latter computer is supplied with just 4K of RAM, but that can be expanded to 56K through an optional internally- mounted board. That robot comes equipped with practically every sensor you could want, including sonic ranging. Options include a somewhat limited-use arm, a Votrax SCO 1 -based voice syn- thesizer, and an RF remote- control con- sole.
That console mimics the one mounted on the robot itself that is located in the "head" area. Via the remote con- sole, a wireless link between a host com- puter or terminal and the robot can be established. Among the available options are a limited version of BASIC and com- plete training courses in industrial elec- tronics and robot applications. The courses are particularly worthwhile; you might want to consider obtaining them separately if you build your own robot.
As an example, the applications course provides a wealth of robotics experi- ments, ranging from simple vision proj- ects to tactile sensing. The newest addition to the family is the most powerful robot available. That robot is the Hero An internal expansion bus has slots for up to 12 expansion boards. Built-in tape recorder. One arm powered, head moves, optional computer interface assemb. Two arms are manually operated assemb. Built-in tape records program steps.
Voice recognition through wireless rose assemb. The arm offered with the unit compares favorably with the ones offered by Rhino and Microbot. Rounding out the features are a seif-recharging power sup- ply and a sophisticated voice-synthesis system. Heath's major difficulty with that robot may be in the area of marketing. The Hero Vs limited mechanical abilities disap- pointed many, and it may be hard to con- vince would-be buyers that there truly is a difference. There is!
Tomy Toys E. Several years ago, they in- troduced a mechanical arm that is now sold exclusively through Radio Shack stores. Their family of true robots ranges from an inexpensive voice -operated unit to a sophisticated double-armed remotely- operated one.
Joshua Glazer: Again, everything feels safe and pleasant. How badly would you like to see the electronic music categories as part of the live telecast? Kat Bein: So badly! Make the awkward kids talk on TV! I also think a live moment would add legitimacy to the genre. Dance music is embedded in popular music and has been a driving force behind key moments and trends in popular culture.
It makes no sense that their categories are continually set aside to the pre-show. Katie Bain: I see the dillemma here, in that the telecast is already strapped for time and the producers understandably have to lean on super famous artists to make the show pop.
Joshua Glazer: Like everything they do, Daft Punk had the most fully-realized performance. Set pieces, Stevie Wonder, white helmets, Nile Rodgers. Kat Bein: I literally don't remember any of that other than Daft Punk. I just YouTube'd Skrillex and Diplo's Justin Bieber performance, and the fact that they had Diplo on non-kit drums and Skrillex on guitar further exemplifies how boring the Grammys think DJs or live electronic performance would be.
They're not there because they're cool electronic musicians, they're there because they had a hit with Justin Bieber. The robots also demonstrated Ableton's ability to cut-and-paste song snippets together into a mega-mix, whether it was manipulated live at all or not. I'm happy for any and all electronic people that hit the stage, but I think Daft Punk set the bar.
Also, for any kids who were hoping that TV performance would help their parents understand what dance music was really like, they were probably very confused. Krystal Rodriguez: Most definitely Daft Punk in Compared to the other acts listed, they had the allure of being rather private, even elusive.That many people and sometimes we just need one. Sometimes we have those days where we feel like nobody is on our side and nobody cares to be. But in the crowd of billion there is someone who understands, someone who is there for you, someone who wants to know you, and someone who already does and adores you. Give everybody a fair chance.