The tactic of using aircraft to ram American Boeing B Superfortresses was first recorded in late August , when Bs from Chinese airfields attempted to bomb the steel factories at Yawata. Sergeant Shigeo Nobe of the 4th Sentai intentionally flew his Kawasaki Ki into a B; debris from the explosion severely damaged another B, which also went down.
On 7 November , the officer commanding the 10th Hiko Shidan Air division made ramming attacks a matter of policy by forming ramming attack flights specifically to oppose the Bs at high altitude. The aircraft were stripped of their fuselage armament and protective systems in order to attain the required altitudes.
Although the term " kamikaze " is often used to refer to the pilots undertaking these attacks, the word was not used by the Japanese military.
The units assigned to the 10th Hiko Shidan included the th Hiko Sentai Fighter group , then commanded by Captain Takashi Fujita, who organised a ramming flight called " Hagakure -Tai " "Special Attack Unit" , which was composed out of volunteers from the three Chutai squadrons of the th: the 1st Chutai " Soyokaze ", 2nd Chutai " Toppu ", and the 3rd Chutai known as " Mikazuki ". On 3 December , Shinomiya — along with Sergeant Masao Itagaki and Sergeant Matsumi Nakano — intercepted a B raid; Shinomaya rammed one B, but was able to land his damaged Ki, which had lost most of the port outer wing, back at base.
After attacking another B Itagaki had to parachute from his damaged fighter, while Nakano rammed and damaged Long Distance of the th BG and crash-landed his stripped-down Ki in a field. Shinomaya's damaged Ki was later displayed inside Tokyo's Matsuya department store while Nakano's Ki was displayed outside, alongside of a life-size cut-away drawing of the forward fuselage of a B On 27 January , Itakagi survived another ramming attack on a B, again parachuting to safety, and received a second Bukosho ; he survived the war as only one of two known double- Bukosho recipients.
Despite their successful attacks, these pilots gained no reprieve, and were obliged to continue these deadly and dangerous ramming tactics until they were killed, or else wounded so badly that they could no longer fly. They were regarded as doomed men and were celebrated among the ranks of those who were going to certain death as Tokkotai kamikaze pilots.
Some other Ki pilots also achieved renown, among them Major Teruhiko Kobayashi of the th Sentai, who was credited by some with a dozen victories mostly due to conventional attacks against Bs. Kai 'modified' or 'improved' was also used for some models of the Ki The Hiko Sentai , usually referred to as Sentai , was the basic operational unit of the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force, composed of three or more Chutai companies or squadrons. A Sentai had 27 to 49 aircraft, with each Chutai having 16 aircraft and pilots plus a maintenance and repair unit.
Several sentai had other units under their operational control, most notably the Hagakure-Tai "Special Attack Units" of the th Sentai. By , with the depredations of Allied attacks on supply lines and airfields, as well as the loss of pilots and aircraft through combat attrition and accidents, few sentai were able to operate at full strength.
Susumu Kaijinami officially credited with eight victories plus 16 unofficially. Data from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This design later became the basis for the Nakajima Ki Retrieved: 23 March Retrieved: 12 June Retrieved: 3 June Retrieved: 7 June Retrieved: 8 June Pacific Wrecks.
Pacific Wrecks Inc. Retrieved 25 April The Asahi Shimbun. The Asahi Shimbun Company. Spruce is back again! This time he tries a more moderato approach to music, drastically lowering the BPMs, though with occasional resurgences to presto.
Mru is an old, half-melted VHS cassette recovered from an unknown, ancient civilization. Drawing upon a mysterious age of myths, demons, heroes, fools, cats, horses, and probably aliens too, these technicolor tales of absurdity detail the obscure dreams, arcane secrets, and exquisite adventures of these lost people.
Come, join us on this bizarre journey! Recent work reported in literature suggest that lignin could be converted to a mixture of high value monomers that may allow buckling the economic balance for biofuels production Lavoie et al. Lignin removed from the pulp during process as kraft pulping was for decades treated as a waste product known as black liquor Dickinson et al. However, the pulp and paper is getting increasingly concerned about valorizing this stream of carbon as shown by the numerous reports on this subject in open literature Ohman et al.
Lignin extraction - Reassessment of the severity factor with respect to hydroxide concentration. The lignin precipitation could be further improved by adding poly Apr This chapter provides an introduction and overview of the important biomass conversion processes, including biochemical and thermochemical conversions and the potential separation and purification technologies in biorefineries.
The chapter introduces a number of representative value-added chemical building blocks and different biorefinery scenarios. It then reviews separation and purification technologies in current and future biorefineries. A section is dedicated to the challenges and opportunities in many of the plausible separation and purification technologies in biorefineries.
These include equilibrium-based separation processes such as absorption, distillation, distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, and supercritical fluid extraction; affinity-based separation such as adsorption, ion exchange, and simulated moving bed; membrane separation, solid—liquid extraction, and hybrid reaction-separation systems.
Fermentation, bipolar membrane electrodialysis, reactive distillation, and reactive absorption are suitable for separation of products obtained by esterification such as biodiesel production.
Integrated bioprocessing, consolidated bioprocessing integrating pre-treatment, bioprocessing and separation and purification offer tremendously exciting new opportunities in future biorefineries.
Generally, lignin can be recovered from black liquor either by ultrafiltration or precipitation. However, acid precipitation is currently the most common method employed for lignin recovery from spent pulping liquor [9, 10]. In the papermaking industries, there is a need to improve the containerboard qualities because of its wide use in the packaging market. Improvement of linerboard compressive strength by hot-pressing and addition of recovered lignin from spent pulping liquor.
This paper evaluates the effect of addition of precipitated lignin, from spent pulping black liquor, to a wet single-ply linerboard handsheet followed by hotpressing at different temperatures, on the improvement of its compressive strength.
Linerboard handsheets for testing the effect of lignin addition were prepared so that the lignin-modified sheets would have the same basis weights as the control handsheets. Both the commercial and the black liquor lignin were added as a powder to wet handsheets after couching from the handsheet mold. The experiments and testing of the physical and strength properties of dried handsheets were conducted according to TAPPI test methods.
The same results were achieved using purchased lignin. These results indicate that inclusion of kraft lignin in linerboard sheets could be proved as an attractive option to reduce linerboard basis weight. The main research efforts have focussed on kraft lignins KLs as they can be extracted in substantial amounts from the black liquors of kraft-pulping.
The linear structure of hardwood HW lignin is preferable for melt spinning, but it must still be thermally pre-treated Kadla et al. Improved yield of carbon fibres from cellulose and kraft lignin. To meet the demand for carbon-fibre-reinforced composites in lightweight applications, cost-efficient processing and new raw materials are sought for. Cellulose and kraft lignin are each interesting renewables for this purpose due to their high availability.
The molecular order of cellulose is an excellent property, as is the high carbon content of lignin. By co-processing cellulose and lignin, the advantages of these macromolecules are synergistic for producing carbon fibre CF of commercial grade in high yields. In focus was the impact of the molecular mass of lignin and the type of cellulose source on the CF yield and properties, while membrane-filtrated kraft lignin and cellulose from dissolving kraft pulp and fully bleached paper-grade SW-KP kraft pulp served as sources.
No difference in the mechanical properties of the produced CF was observed. This resulted in low flow of wash liquor through the cake and high sodium contents in the final lignin. These problems were caused by changes in lignin solubility, caused by excessive pH and ionic strength gradients in the cake during the washing process . Also large lignin losses and high water content in lignin are mentioned. Conference Paper. Oct Many kraft pulp mills have a desire to increase their production capacity.
Often in such cases the recovery boiler is one of the bottlenecks. Recently lignin recovery from black liquor LignoBoost technology has become available that promises increased pulp mill capacity and can help to achieve a completely fossil-fuel free mill.
The separation of lignin is an option that is considered by the pulp mills for several reasons. Firstly, the heat transfer capacity of the recovery boiler is often a bottleneck that limits pulp production.
Removing part of the lignin from the black liquor decreases the heat load on the recovery boiler and more pulp can be produced. The separated lignin could be used to replace e.
Upgrading lignin to specialty chemicals for materials applicable for e. Lignin value in upgraded form would be approximately three times the energy value. Lignin separation will affect the black liquor properties and the recovery boiler operation. This paper looks how this is applicable in a specific case, market pulp mill in Scandinavia and extends the predictions to the case with a completely new softwood pulp mill in Northern hemisphere.
Influence of long-term heat treatment of kraft black liquor on lignin precipitation and material properties. Tilia americana L. Cheng Tilia cordata Mill. Tilia americana.
Tilia cordata. Tilia henryana. Tilia japonica. Tilia miqueliana. Tilia mongolica. Tilia platyphyllos. Tilia tomentosa. Retrieved 10 December Shorter Oxford English Dictionary , vol. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. Electronic version 2. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Retrieved 28 August Retrieved November 22, Niche Timbers.
Accessed Retrieved This region is subject to extremes of weather with little natural shelter and only occasional man-made shelter from the elements. Though greatest from November to May, the threat of severe and cold conditions in the Presidentials and across the New Hampshire Section is present year-round and requires hikers' careful attention to weather forecasts and planning, provisions and gear.
In some parts of the trail in Maine, even the strongest hikers may only average 1 mile per hour 1. Although there are dozens of river and stream fords on the Maine section of the trail, the Kennebec River is the only one on the trail that requires a boat crossing. Park management strongly discourages thru-hiking within the park before May 15 or after October The international extension, called the International Appalachian Trail begins at Mt.
Southern terminus: Springer Mountain , Georgia. Northern terminus: Mount Katahdin , Maine. The Appalachian Trail Conservancy originally, Appalachian Trail Conference and the National Park Service oversee the entire length of the Appalachian National Scenic Trail via memoranda of understanding with other public agencies through whose land the trail runs, including the U.
Forest Service , national parks, national forests, the Tennessee Valley Authority , state parks, and others, who help administer portions of the trail corridor. The Appalachian Trail has been a resource for researchers in a variety of disciplines. Portions of the trail in Tennessee were used on a study on trail maintenance for the trail's "uniform environmental conditions and design attributes and substantial gradient in visitor use. Behavioral studies have also been conducted on hikers themselves.
A study on hikers found that most persons hike the trail "for fun and enjoyment of life and for warm relationships with others" and that "environmental awareness, physical challenge, camaraderie, exercise, and solitude" were chief results among hikers. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the trail. For the conservation group, see Appalachian Trail Conservancy. For the train station, see Appalachian Trail Metro-North station. An old metal diamond marker beside the trail in Maine.
Further information: Appalachian Trail by state. A hiker signs the register on Springer Mountain, Ga. See Appalachian Trail Conservancy. Archived from the original on July 1, Retrieved July 2, TC Trail. Archived from the original on October 14, Retrieved September 27, Archived from the original on July 30, Live Outdoorsy. Archived from the original on February 11, Retrieved May 13, The New York Times.
Archived from the original on June 19, Retrieved June 18, October 28, Archived from the original on October 16, Retrieved August 2, International Appalachian Trail.
Archived from the original on January 7, Retrieved November 27, Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 1, Jason Fall Journal of Appalachian Studies. Archived from the original on April 29, Retrieved July 16, Archived from the original on May 23, Retrieved December 17, The Sentinel. April 1, Appalachian Trail Museum. Appalachian Trail Conservancy. Archived from the original on June 9, Retrieved September 1, Archived from the original on February 20, The Long Distance Hiker.
Summer Archived from the original PDF on July 16, Archived from the original on February 13, Retrieved February 13, Roanoke Times. Archived from the original on December 20, Retrieved September 20, Archived from the original on June 30, Retrieved December 4, Appalachian Trail Conference. NY Times. Archived from the original on June 12, Retrieved November 16, Christian Science Monitor. Organic Life.
Rodale Inc. Archived from the original on September 7, Retrieved September 7,The haploid males and diploid females of Hymenoptera have all chromosomes in the same proportions. This rules out most familiar sex-determining mechanisms, which rely on dosage differences at sex.